Synonyms for jesenius or Related words with jesenius
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(also written as Jessenius, , , ; December 27, 1566 – June 21, 1621) was a Bohemian physician, politician and philosopher.
A sister train named Jan
, composed of Hungarian and German rolling stock, is running two hours earlier from Budapest and two hours later from Hamburg.
Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan
and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. The first female rector became in 1950 Jiřina Popelová (Palacký University of Olomouc).
was born in Breslau (Wrocław), where he studied at the Elisabeth gymnasium. From 1583 he studied at the University of Wittenberg, from 1585 at the University of Leipzig, and from 1588 at the University of Padua.
was arrested in Pressburg (today: "Bratislava, Slovakia") after being sent as a deputy by the Bohemian estates, and was held in a prison of Vienna. In December, he was released in exchange for two Habsburg captives. There is a legend that, before his release, he wrote the inscription "IMMMM" on the wall of his prison cell. Ferdinand explained this as "Imperator Mathias Mense Martio Morietur" (Latin for "Emperor Mathias will die in the month of March"), and he wrote another prophecy next to it: "Iesseni, Mentiris, Mala Morte Morieris" ("
, you lie, you will die a horrible death").
was the physician of the Prince of Saxony, and from 1594 professor of anatomy at the University of Wittenberg. After 1600 he settled down in Prague as professor and anatomical consultant for Rudolf II, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor; in 1617 he was elected rector of Charles University of Prague.
Both predictions came true: Emperor Mathias died in March 1619, and
was arrested after the defeat of King Frederick of Bohemia by Emperor Ferdinand II in 1620 (Battle of White Mountain) and executed, along with 26 other Bohemian estates leaders, on the Old Town Square in 1621.
In front of the Old Town Hall is also a memorial to martyrs (including Jan
and Maxmilián Hošťálek) beheaded on that spot during the Old Town Square execution by Habsburgs, after the Battle of White Mountain. Twenty-seven crosses mark the pavement in their honour. The crosses were installed during the repairs of Old Town Hall after the WW2, while a nearby plaque which lists the names of all 27 victims dates from 1911.
Ladislaus Jesenský died in 1526 during the catastrophic Battle of Mohács. Subsequently, all Jesenský property was confiscated by the advancing Ottomans, so brothers Melchior, Lorenz and Balthasar Jesenský moved to Silesia (then part of the Crown of Bohemia) and lived in Wrocław and Świdnica from 1541 onward. Balthasar's son was Ján Jesenský, known as Jan
, famous scientist and politician who lived and died in Prague, Bohemia.
Hošťálek was one of the Protestant councilmen of Žatec opposed to the election of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. In May 1618 he was elected as one of the ten members of the council of the Burghers. In the aftermath of the Battle of white mountain he was beheaded on 21 June 1621 along with 27 other Czech burghers and noblemen, including Jan
(1566–1621) rector magnificus of Charles University. His head was hung on one of the Žatec city gates and his estates were confiscated by the crown. His sons from his first marriage, served in the armies of anti-Habsburg coalition and information about their lives or deaths are not known. John Sigismund, his son from his second marriage, later became a colonel of the imperial army, and by an agreement reached in 1637 with Ferdinand III, was able to remove his father's remains from the gate and bury them.
With the Bohemian army destroyed, Tilly entered Prague and the revolt collapsed. King Frederick fled the country with his wife Elizabeth (hence his nickname "the Winter King"), and many Bohemians welcomed the restoration of Roman Catholic rule. Forty-seven leaders of the insurrection were put on trial, and twenty-seven of them were executed in Prague's Old Town Square on what came to be called the "Old Town Square execution". Amongst those executed were Kryštof Harant and Jan
. Today, 27 crosses have been laid into the cobblestones as a tribute to those victims. An estimated five-sixths of the Bohemian nobility went into exile soon after the Battle of White Mountain, and their properties were confiscated.
After Emperor Matthias II and then King of Bohemia Ferdinand II (later Holy Roman Emperor) began oppressing the rights of Protestants in Bohemia, the resulting Bohemian Revolt led to outbreak of the Thirty Years' War in 1618. Elector Frederick V of the Electorate of the Palatinate, a Protestant, was elected by the Bohemian nobility to replace Ferdinand on the Bohemian throne, and was known as the Winter King. Frederick's wife, the popular Elizabeth Stuart and subsequently Elizabeth of Bohemia, known as the Winter Queen or Queen of Hearts, was the daughter of King James VI of Scotland. However, after Frederick's defeat in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, 27 Bohemian estates leaders together with Jan
, rector of the Charles University of Prague were executed on the Prague's Old Town Square on 21 June 1621 and the rest were exiled from the country; their lands were then given to Catholic loyalists (mostly of Bavarian and Saxon origin), this ended the pro-reformation movement in Bohemia and also ended the role of Prague as ruling city of the Holy Roman Empire.
Jesenská was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic). Her family is believed to descend from Jan
, the first professor of medicine at Prague's Charles University who was among the 27 Bohemian luminaries executed in the Old Town Square in Prague on 21 June 1621 for defying the authority of the Habsburgs King Ferdinand II. However, this belief has been challenged as unfounded. Jesenská's father Jan was a dental surgeon and professor at Charles University in Prague; her mother Milena Hejzlarová died when Milena was 16. Jesenská studied at Minerva, the first academic gymnasium for girls in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After graduation she enrolled briefly at the Prague Conservatory and at the Faculty of Medicine but abandoned her studies after two semesters. In 1918 she married Ernst Pollak, a Jewish intellectual and literary critic whom she met in Prague's literary circles, and moved with him to Vienna. The marriage, which allegedly caused her to break off relations with her father for several years, was an unhappy one.
Next in line for Bohemian crown was Rudolf's brother Matthias, but since Matthias was childless, his cousin, the archduke Ferdinand of Styria (related also to Jagellon, Luxemburg and Premyslovec Dynasties), was initially accepted by the Bohemian Diet as heir presumptive when Matthias became ill. The Protestant Estates of Bohemia didn't like this decision. Tension between the Protestants and the pro-Habsburg Catholics led to the Third Defenestration of Prague, when the Catholic governors were thrown from the windows of Prague Castle on May 23, 1618. They survived, but the Protestants replaced the Catholic governors. This incident led to the Thirty Years' War. When Matthias died, Ferdinand of Styria was elected Emperor as Emperor Ferdinand II, but was not accepted as King of Bohemia by the Protestant directors. The Calvinist Frederick V of Pfalz was elected King of Bohemia. The Battle on the White Mountain followed on November 8, 1620. Emperor Ferdinand II was helped not only by Catholic Spain, Catholic Poland, and Catholic Bavaria, but also by Lutheran Saxony (which disliked the Calvinists). The Protestant army, led by the warrior Count J. M. Thurn, was formed mostly from Lutheran Silesia, Lusatia, and Moravia. It was mainly a battle between Protestants and Catholics. The Catholics won and Emperor Ferdinand II became King of Bohemia. He proclaimed the re-Catholicisation of the Czech Lands. Twenty-seven Protestant leaders were executed in the Old Town Square in Prague on June 21, 1621. (Three noblemen, seven knights and seventeen burghers were executed, including Dr. Jan
, the Rector of Prague University.) Most of the Protestant leaders fled, including Count J. M. Thurn; those who stayed didn't expect harsh punishment. The Protestants had to return all the seized Catholic property to the Church. No faith other than Catholicism was permitted. The upper classes were given the option either to emigrate or to convert to Catholicism. The German language was given equal rights with the Czech language. After the Peace of Westphalia, Ferdinand II moved the court to Vienna, and Prague began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000.
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