Synonyms for klamaths or Related words with klamaths
Examples of "klamaths"
Before settlers came to the Klamath Basin, the Link River was known to the local
as "Yulalona," meaning "back and forth." At times, strong winds blew the water upstream into Klamath Lake and partly drained the riverbed.
Just before they reached Klamath Lake, Klamath tribesmen attacked the expedition and several members were killed. A brutal counterattack by Frémont and his group upon a native village resulted in many
' deaths. Kern recorded the counterattack in an engraving, that was later published with Fremont's report.
The three highest peaks in the
are Mount Eddy in Siskiyou County, California, at , and Thompson Peak and Mount Hilton in Trinity County, California, at and , respectively. The northernmost and largest sub-range of the Klamath Mountains are the Siskiyou Mountains.
Life on the reservation was difficult. The more numerous
harassed the Modoc, and the Indian agent neglected them. The Modoc became increasingly frustrated. By 1865, Captain Jack led his band of Modoc off the reservation and returned to their territory of the Lost River (California) area of Northern California.
The Klamath Native Americans of the area thought that the mountain was inhabited by Llao, their god of the underworld. After the mountain destroyed itself the
recounted the events as a great battle between Llao and his rival Skell, their sky god.
There are extensive hiking trail systems, recreation areas, and campgrounds both primitive and developed in the
. A stretch of the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT) passes through these mountains as well. This section of the PCT is known locally as "The Big Bend" and is the transition from the California Floristic Province to the Cascades.
"Ceanothus prostratus" is found throughout the Pacific Northwest, ranging through Washington, Oregon, western Idaho, western Nevada, and south into northern California. The southern extent of its natural range is the central Sierra Nevada mountains. Given its elevational range, this plant is also native to many of the other mountain ranges of the Pacific Northwest, including the
, Siskiyous, Cascades, and Warner Mountains.
The ecoregion includes several endemic or near-endemic species, such as Port Orford cedar or Lawson's cypress ("Chamaecyparis lawsoniana"), foxtail pine ("Pinus balfouriana" spp. "balfouriana"), and Brewer's spruce ("Picea breweriana"), forming one of the largest collections of different conifers in the world. The flowering plant "Kalmiopsis leachiana", also endemic to the
, is limited to the Siskiyou sub-range in Oregon.
The Klamath Native Americans of the area believed that the mountain was inhabited by Llao, their god of the underworld. After the mountain destroyed itself the
recounted the events as a great battle between Llao and his rival Skell, their sky god.
Seeking to explain the observed clockwise paleorotation, and noting that Siletzia appeared to have rotated as a rigid block, proposed two models. First was rotation about a "southern pivot" in contact with the Klamath Mountains. This has various problems, especially because at the northern end sediments and even boulders from the continent are found at the base of the Crescent Formation, showing that it was near the continent from the beginning. In the second model (subsequently refined by ), Siletzia was originally adjacent to the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament, then rifted from the continent and rotated about a "northern pivot" near the Olympic Peninsula. Because sediments also show the
in close contact from the start, this requires the
to have moved with Siletzia. Originally there were conflicts in the understanding of when the
moved, and with the age and amount of rotation of the Clarno Formation in central Oregon. These were largely cleared up in a study of the Clarno Formation by and illustrated with a palinspastic reconstruction as of 38 Ma.
The first recorded persons of European descent to visit Upper Klamath Lake were a party of Hudson's Bay Company fur trappers commanded by Peter Skene Ogden in December 1826. Ogden called the lake "Dog Lake", after obtaining nine dogs from the local
for food. They explored the lake and the Klamath River headwaters, helped by native guides. However, they did not stay in the area for long, instead moving south to tributaries of the Klamath River in search of beaver.
At the mouth of the Rogue River, along the coast of Curry County, is the Otter Point Formation, a mélange of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks such as shales, sandstones, and chert. Although the rocks formed in the Jurassic, evidence suggests that they faulted north as part of the Gold Beach Terrane after the
merged with North America. Oregon's only dinosaur fragments, those of a hadrosaur or duck-billed dinosaur, were found here. In the mid-1960s, a geologist also discovered the beak and teeth of an ichthyosaur in the Otter Point Formation.
About 70 million years ago, the area where the Cascade Range is now situated was under the most recent encroachment by the Pacific Ocean.
The rocks that make up the modern Sierra Nevada and the Klamath Mountains were already in existence but deeply buried. Some 70 million years before (140 million years before present), the rocks that now make up the
broke away from the rocks that now make up the Sierras and moved west, leaving the flooded 'Lassen Strait.' This broad depression was a seaway that connected the marine basin in California with that in east central Oregon.
Among the oldest rocks in Oregon, some of the formations in these terranes date to the Triassic, nearly 250 million years ago. Between 165 and 170 million years ago, in the Jurassic, faulting consolidated the Klamath terranes offshore during what geologists call the Siskiyou orogeny. This three- to five-million-year episode of intense tectonic activity pushed sedimentary rocks deep enough into the mantle to melt them and then forced them to the surface as granitic plutons. Belts of plutons, which contain gold and other precious metals, run through the
and include the Ashland pluton, the Grayback batholith east of Oregon Caves National Monument, the Grants Pass pluton, the Gold Hill pluton, the Jacksonville pluton, and others. Miners have worked rich deposits of gold, silver, copper, nickel, and other metals in several districts of the
. Placer mining in the mid-19th century soon led to lode mining for gold. Aside from a mine in eastern Oregon, the Greenback Mine along Grave Creek, a Rogue tributary, was the most productive gold mine in Oregon.
traditionally (and to this day) believe everything anyone needed to live was provided by the Creator in their rich land east of the Cascades. They saw success as a reward for virtuous striving and likewise as an assignment of spiritual favor, thus, elders counseled "Work hard so that people will respect you.". For thousands of years, the Klamath people survived by their industriousness. When the months of long winter nights were upon them, they survived on prudent reserves from the abundant seasons. Toward the end of March, when supplies dwindled, large fish surged up the Williamson, Sprague, and Lost River. On the Sprague River, where Gmok'am'c first began the tradition, the Klamath's still celebrate the Return of C'waam Ceremony.
In 1865, his father was appointed United States Indian Agent over the
and Modocs at Fort Klamath. According to the treaty of 1864, the Indians were to be gathered on the Klamath Reservation. The fort was the only place east of the Cascades in that immediate region where there were any white people . The younger Applegate was appointed assistant to the agent, and that was the beginning of a service that lasted for several years, under various agency administrations, during which time he gained influence over the tribes of southeastern Oregon, which he used to good advantage later when the Modoc outbreak of 1872 occurred. This influence probably more than any other agency resulted finally in the conversion of the most resistant of the Indian tribes into farmers and stockmen.
The military Pitt River Expeditions against local Indian Tribes occurred during the 1850s. The first expedition in 1850 was mainly an attempt to establish better relations with the indigenous peoples. The second, led by General Crook in 1857, was a military engagement, as the US government decided to forcibly remove the Pit River natives and move them to the Mendocino Indian Reservation (then later the Round Valley Indian Reservation) in Mendocino County. The former enemies of the Achomawi – the Modocs and
– were also driven out of the region by 1873 with the conclusion of the Modoc War. This is considered to be the point at which the Pit River valley was opened up to large-scale White settlement.
Captain Jack, the Chief of the Modoc tribe located in Northern California, is described as a Native American friendly to the "white people" who settled in his country. As larger numbers of settlers trespass onto Modoc land and small disputes arise between the Modocs and white settlers, the US government coerces a treaty, over Captain Jack's reluctance, that will relocate the Modocs to a reservation in Oregon and shared with the
. Conflicts between the two tribes quickly begin, and the Modocs return south to California. Their return is halted by a skirmish between the tribe and an army battalion in 1872, and the Modocs divert to the California lava beds. Another group of Modocs, led by Hooker Jim, murdered 12 white settlers and forced Captain Jack to lead his tribe into a battle against the US Army. A peace commission led by General Canby, conducts peace talks with Captain Jack who eventually, under pressure from Hooker Jim's Modocs, agrees to kill Canby should the original Modoc land not be returned to the tribe. As feared, Canby refuses to return the land to the Modocs, and he is killed by Captain Jack. Hooker Jim betrays Captain Jack to the army, and he is hanged on October 3, 1873.
Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.-: Sir : I have the honor to report that in accordance with instructions from district headquarters I assumed the command of the U. S. troops in Smith's River Valley on llth instant, and on the following day removed the command (Captain Stuart's company (G), Second Infantry California Volunteers) six miles south of Smith's River, equally distant from Crescent City, still to the south. The camp is upon dry, sloping ground, an opening in a redwood forest, and upon the main road between Crescent City and the Indian reservation, and where it is intersected by the Yreka and Jacksonville turnpike. Communication with the steam-ship landing will always be open over a good road, and we are sufficiently near Crescent City to afford that town protection from the powerful tribe of
, as well as from the reservation Indians. Good water, wood, and grazing in abundance. The point has the approval of Mr. Hanson, Indian agent. The name Camp Lincoln is retained and the post-office address not changed. Before selecting this site I examined the proposed Russell place and found it entirely unfit for a camp in consequence of its liability to overflow. During the past winter there was but a single knoll above water there, and that not one-half the area of the plaza of San Francisco.
, Modocs, and the Yahooskin, a band of Klamath erroneously believed to be a group Paiute or Shoshone, signed a treaty with the United States in 1864, establishing the Klamath Reservation to the northeast of Upper Klamath Lake. This area was largely part of the traditional territory controlled by the ă′ukuckni Klamath band. The treaty required the tribes to cede the land in the Klamath Basin, bounded on the north by the 44th parallel, to the United States. In return, the United States was to make a lump sum payment of $35,000, and annual payments totalling $80,000 over 15 years, as well as providing infrastructure and staff for the reservation. The treaty provided that, if the Indians drank or stored intoxicating liquor on the reservation, the payments could be withheld; the United States could also locate additional tribes on the reservation in the future. The tribes requested Lindsay Applegate as the agent to represent the United States to them. The Indian agent estimated the total population of the three tribes at about 2,000 when the treaty was signed.
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