Synonyms for kotsuzumi or Related words with kotsuzumi
Examples of "kotsuzumi"
Akiyoshi's music is distinctive for its textures and for its Japanese influence. When Duke Ellington died in 1974, Nat Hentoff wrote in "The Village Voice" about how Ellington's music reflected his African heritage. Upon reading this, Akiyoshi was inspired to investigate her own Japanese musical heritage. From that point on, she began composing with Japanese themes, Japanese harmonies, and even Japanese instruments (e.g.
, kakko, utai, tsugaru shamisen, etc.) Her music remained planted firmly in jazz, however, reflecting influences including those of Ellington, Charles Mingus, and Bud Powell. One reviewer of the live LP "Road Time" said the music on her big band albums demonstrates
In Noh, the "hayashi" sit along the rear of the stage, facing the audience and fully visible. A distinct and separate group of performers from the chorus, they are purely instrumentalists; the type of instruments featured and the order in which they sit on stage follow established practices. The leftmost performer plays a small "taiko", set on a stand before him, with two drumsticks. To his right is the "ōtsuzumi" hip drum, followed by the "
" shoulder drum, and the Noh flute ("nōkan" or simply "fue").
The , also known as the "ōkawa", is an hourglass-shaped Japanese drum. It is a larger version of the tsuzumi, or
and is used in traditional Japanese theater and folk music. Its appearance and the sound it produces are slightly different from that of the tsuzumi. Whereas the tsuzumi is smaller and has a more ornate drum head, the okawa is larger, and its head takes on a more plain, leathery appearance. The sound is also higher and sharper in pitch, resembling more of a "pop" than the tsuzumi's "pon" sound. The hourglass structure is slightly bigger, and the heads of the drum are taut very tightly. The okawa is played on the side of the player, possibly due to its larger, heavy size, whereas the tsuzumi is played upon the shoulder.
Noh theatre is accompanied by a chorus and a "hayashi" ensemble ("Noh-bayashi" 能囃子). Noh is a chanted drama, and a few commentators have dubbed it "Japanese opera". However, the singing in Noh involves a limited tonal range, with lengthy, repetitive passages in a narrow dynamic range. Texts are poetic, relying heavily on the Japanese seven-five rhythm common to nearly all forms of Japanese poetry, with an economy of expression, and an abundance of allusion. The singing parts of Noh are called ""Utai"" and the speaking parts ""Kataru"". The music has many blank spaces ("ma") in between the actual sounds, and these negative blank spaces are in fact considered the heart of the music. In addition to "utai", Noh "hayashi" ensemble consists of four musicians, also known as the "hayashi-kata", including three drummers, which play the "shime-daiko", "ōtsuzumi" (hip drum), and "
" (shoulder drum) respectively, and a "nohkan" flutist.
In addition to Japanese contemporary arts programs, a number of international events occur at the center. Since 2010, an international theater festival, the Kyoto Experiment has been held in late September and October. A long-running program, the Traditional Theater Training program (T.T.T.), originally started in 1985 by scholar of Japanese theater Jonathan Salz, and now under the aegis of the Kyoto Art Center, gives an intensive course in a traditional Japanese theatrical form – originally kyōgen, now also Noh and nihonbuyō, and a separate course in
(drumming) – for beginners (originally 6 weeks, now 3 weeks). Approximately half the participants are foreign and half are Japanese; since 2011 the weekend workshop at the start of the program, which gives a taste of various aspects of Japanese theater, has been available separately (lectures are in Japanese with English interpretation).
Care for the drum heads of the ōkawa is peculiar in that they must be kept dry at all times. In contrast, the heads of the smaller
must always be moist. Since the sound of the ōkawa is supposed to be higher in pitch, the player must ensure that the skin of the drum-heads remains as constricted as possible, and this is best realized when the drum heads are kept dry. To keep the drum heads dry, they are often kept near a kind of old style of Japanese furnace called a hibachi. When ready to perform, the player takes the drumheads and binds them to the body of the ōkawa as tightly as possible. Given the nature of the heads of the ōkawa, they wear after a specific number of times. Since they are very expensive, at least a thousand US dollars a pair, the ōkawa player must measure how many times, and how long, the instrument is played. If the heads are taken good care of, they can be used for as much as ten performances, after which the heads show signs of wear, lose their desired sound quality, and must be discarded.
Ono studied piano from the age of 4 to 12 or 13. She attended kabuki performances with her mother, who was trained in shamisen, koto, otsuzumi,
, nagauta, and could read Japanese musical scores. At 14 Yoko took up vocal training in lieder-singing. At Sarah Lawrence, she studied poetry with Alastair Reid, English literature with Kathryn Mansell, and music composition with the Viennese-trained André Singer. Of this time Ono has said that her heroes were the twelve-tone composers Arnold Schoenberg and Alban Berg. She said, "I was just fascinated with what they could do. I wrote some twelve-tone songs, then my music went into [an] area that my teacher felt was really a bit off track, and... he said, 'Well, look, there are people who are doing things like what you do and they're called avant-garde.'" Singer introduced her to the work of Edgar Varèse, John Cage, and Henry Cowell. She left college and moved to New York in 1957, supporting herself through secretarial work and lessons in the traditional Japanese arts at the Japan Society.
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