Synonyms for maghareh or Related words with maghareh
Examples of "maghareh"
Monumental attestations of Menkauhor are limited to a rock inscription at the Wadi
in Sinai, showing his titulary and a rough stele inscribed with his cartouche from Mastaba 904 at Saqqara.
As early as the Old Kingdom, seafaring expeditions on the Red Sea were organized from this port. Similar material was also found at the Wadi
, where many Old Kingdom inscriptions are found.
Little is known about activities conducted during Sekhemkhet's reign. The only preserved documents showing Sekhemkhet are two rock inscriptions at Wadi
in the Sinai peninsula. The first one shows Sekhemkhet twice: once wearing the Hedjet crown, another wearing the Deshret crown. The second inscription depicts a scene known as "smiting the enemy": Sekhemkhet has grabbed a foe by its hair and raises his arm in an attempt to club the enemy to death with a ceremonial sceptre. The presence of these reliefs at Wadi
suggests that local mines of copper and turquoise were exploited during Sekhemkhet's reign. These mines were apparently active throughout the early 3rd Dynasty since reliefs of Djoser and Sanakht were also discovered in the Wadi
Owing to the scarcity of artefacts and inscriptions relating to Menkauhor's reign, few of his activities are known. Menkauhor sent an expedition to Sinai to exploit the mines of turquoise and copper in the Wadi
. The expedition is evidenced by a damaged rock inscription showing Menkauhor's titulary which is one of the few attestations dating to his lifetime. The mines of Sinai had been exploited since the Third Dynasty (2686 BC–2613 BC), and both Menkauhor's predecessor Nyuserre Ini and successor Djedkare Isesi sent expeditions to the Wadi
(also spelled Maghara or Magharah, meaning "The Valley of Caves" in Egyptian Arabic), is an archaeological site located in the southwestern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. It contains pharaonic monuments and turquoise mines dating from the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians knew the site as "the Terraces of Turquoise."
Very little is known of Sanakht's activities during his reign. The presence of reliefs depicting him in the Sinai at Wadi
together with those of Djoser and Sekhemkhet suggest an important Egyptian presence there at the time of the Third Dynasty. Expeditions were launched for the procurement of mineral resources, in particular turquoise.
Pepi II seems to have carried on foreign policy in ways similar to that of his predecessors. Copper and turquoise were mined at Wadi
in the Sinai, and alabaster was quarried from Hatnub. He is mentioned in inscriptions found in the Phoenician city of Byblos in ancient Palestine.
East of Egypt, Nyuserre commissioned at least one expedition to the Wadi
in Sinai, where mines of copper and turquoise were exploited during much of the Old Kingdom. This expedition left a large rock relief, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The relief shows Nyuserre "smiting the Bedouins of all foreign lands, the great god, lord of the two lands".
Ancient Egyptian monuments, buildings and inscriptions span the period from the Third to Twenty-Ninth Dynasties (ca. 2700 BC-1100 BC), although most monuments date only to the Twelfth Dynasty. Two Third Dynasty rock tables of king Sanakht are found in the valley, as is one of Djoser and two virtually identical tables of king Sekhemkhet. Tables of Sneferu and Khufu from the Fourth Dynasty are also found there. The Fifth Dynasty king Sahure's funerary temple at Abusir has a relief representing him dispatching a fleet to the Red Sea, probably to collect turquoise at
. Sahure raised a monument depicting himself "smiting the Mentju of all foreign lands" which was found at
. Fifth Dynasty rock tablets include those of King Nyuserre Ini accompanied by a libation vase and images of the gods Horus and Thoth, one of king Menkauhor Kaiu, and three of king Djedkare Isesi.
Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Later, between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi
in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were also found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna.
In his last year of reign Sahure sent another expedition abroad, this time to the copper and turquoise mines of Wadi
and Wadi Kharit in Sinai, which had been active since at least the beginning of the 3rd Dynasty. This expedition brought back over 6000 units of copper to Egypt and also produced two reliefs in Sinai, one of which shows Sahure in the traditional act of smiting Asiatics and boasting ""The Great God smites the Asiatics of all countries"".
As before, expeditions were sent to Wadi
and Wadi Kharit in the Sinai to mine for turquoise and copper, and to quarries northwest of Abu Simbel for gneiss. Trade expeditions were sent south to Punt to obtain malachite, myrrh, and electrum, and archeological finds at Byblos attest to diplomatic expeditions sent to that Phoenician city. Finds bearing the names of several Dynasty V kings at the site of Dorak, near the Sea of Marmara, may be evidence of trade but remain a mystery.
In 1899 scientist Alessandro Ricci published a drawing of a serekh with a single leg (Gardiner-sign "D58") as hieroglyph inside. The picture was seen in Volume No. 35 of the "Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde" series. According to Ricci the serekh was found in a rock inscription at Wadi
, Sinai. The egyptologists Jaroslav Černý and Michel Baude found out, that Ricci were referring to the rock inscription of (3rd dynasty) king Sanakht. Ricci simply had misinterpreted the signs used for Sanakht's name -an upright sign of a rope loop, the zig-zag shaped sign for water and a branch-sign below- as a single leg-symbol.
At the Wadi
in Sinai a rock inscription contains Khufu's names and titles and reports: ""Hor-Medjedu, Khnum-Khuf, Bikuj-Nebu", the great god and smiter of the troglodytes, all protection and life are with him". The work-off of the relief is similar to that of king Snefru. In one scene king Khufu wears the double-crown; nearby, the depiction of the god Thoth is visible. In another scene, close by, Khufu wears the "Atef"-crown while smiting an enemy. In this scene the god Wepwawet is present.
Sekhemkhet (also read as Sechemchet) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom. His reign is thought to have been from about 2648 BC until 2640 BC. He is also known under his later traditioned birth name Djoser-tety and under his Hellenized name Tyreis (by Manetho; derived from "Teti" in the Abydos king list). He was probably the brother or eldest son of king Djoser. Little is known about this king, since he ruled for only a few years. However, he erected a step pyramid at Saqqara and left behind a well known rock inscription at Wadi
Sanakht (also read as Hor-Sanakht) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the Third Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. His chronological position is highly uncertain, and it is also unclear under which Hellenized name the ancient historian Manetho could have listed him. Many Egyptologists connect Sanakht with the ramesside cartouche name "Nebka". However, this remains disputable, because no further royal title of that king was ever found; neither in contemporary sources, nor in later ones. There are two relief fragments depicting Sanakht that once originated from the Wadi
on the Sinai Peninsula.
Since at least the First Dynasty (3000 BCE) in ancient Egypt, and possibly before then, turquoise was used by the Egyptians and was mined by them in the Sinai Peninsula. This region was known as the "Country of Turquoise" by the native Monitu. There are six mines in the peninsula, all on its southwest coast, covering an area of some . The two most important of these mines, from a historic perspective, are Serabit el-Khadim and Wadi
, believed to be among the oldest of known mines. The former mine is situated about 4 kilometres from an ancient temple dedicated to the deity Hathor.
At the Wadi
in Sinai a rock inscription depicts Khufu with the double crown. Khufu sent several expeditions in an attempt to find turquoise and copper mines. Like other kings, such as Sekhemkhet, Sneferu and Sahure, which are also depicted in impressive reliefs there, he was looking for those two precious materials. Khufu also entertained contacts with Byblos. He sent several expeditions to Byblos in an attempt to trade copper tools and weapons for precious Lebanese Cedar wood. This kind of wood was essential for building large and stable funerary boats and indeed the boats discovered at the Great Pyramid were made of it.
Three or four rock inscriptions dating to Djedkare's reign have been found in the Wadi
in Sinai, where mines of copper and semi-precious stones were exploited throughout the Old Kingdom, from the Fourth until the Sixth Dynasty. These inscriptions record three expeditions sent to look for turquoise: the earliest one, dated to the third or fourth cattle count–possibly corresponding to the sixth or eighth year of Dejdkare's reign–explicitly recalls the arrival of the mining party to the "hills of the turquoise" after being given "divine authority for the finding of semi-precious stones in the writing of the god himself, [as was enacted] in the broad court of the temple Nekhenre". This sentence could indicate the earliest known record of an oracular divination undertaken in order to ensure the success of the expedition prior to its departure, Nekhenre being the sun temple of Userkaf.
Traditionally, the species found and changes in their proportions had been interpreted as a reflection of changes in the environment. However, in his study of the fauna from the site of Ksar Akil in Lebanon, the palaeontologist D.A. Hooijer dismissed fluctuations in faunal percentages as no more than the "hunter's choice" and the bones as reflecting no more than the "palaeolithic menu". His main reason lay in the differences between the fauna of Ksar Akil and that of the Wadi
caves, only 200 km to the south (Garrod and Bate 1939). Higgs took marked exception to this, firmly rejecting the "menu' hypothesis. He showed that the environments at each site were wholly different. The steep mountains of the Lebanese coastal region supported the wild goats and deer found at Ksar Akil, and this contrasted sharply with the setting at Mount Carmel, where the low, steppic hinterland supported mainly gazelle, the bones of which predominated:
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