Synonyms for manichaeans or Related words with manichaeans
Examples of "manichaeans"
The Synod of Gangra was held in 340. The synod condemned
, and their practices. The concluding canons of the Synod condemned the
for their actions, and declared many of their practices anathematised.
During the Diocletianic Persecution the Emperor Diocletian ordered low-status
to be executed while high-status
were to be sent to work in the quarries of Proconnesus or the mines of Phaeno.
Henning describes how this translation process evolved and influenced the
of Central Asia:
The Albanenses were a group of
who lived in Albania, probably about the eighth century.
The most important religious observance of the
was the Bema Fest, observed annually:
'Amr was the most prominent patron of Manichaeism, and he gave shelter to the religion and managed to convince Narseh to put an end to the persecution of the
, whoever the persecution of
was resumed after the death of Narses and the Lakhmid kingdom resumed its support to
. In c.272 'Amr has paid homage (became vassal) to the Sassanid king Narses and his name is mentioned in the Paikuli inscription.
9. the doctrines ("maqalat") of other religions (
, Hindus, Buddhists and Chinese);
Additionally, Huneric murdered many members of the Hasdingi dynasty and also persecuted
, a dualist heresy.
In 291, persecution arose in the Persian empire with the murder of the apostle Sisin by Bahram II, and the slaughter of many
. In 296, Diocletian decreed against the
: "We order that their organizers and leaders be subject to the final penalties and condemned to the fire with their abominable scriptures", resulting in martyrdom for many in Egypt and North Africa (see "Diocletian Persecution"). By 354, Hilary of Poitiers wrote that the Manichaean faith was a significant force in southern Gaul. In 381 Christians requested Theodosius I to strip
of their civil rights. He issued a decree of death for Manichaean monks in 382.
Epiphanius of Salamis stated that Akouas was the first to bring Manichaeism to his hometown of Eleutheropolis in Palestine. He stated that
there were known as "Akouanitans" (or "Acuanites") due to his influence. John of Damascus later described
as being referred to as "Aconites."
John's other works include tracts and sermons against the doctrines of the Akephaloi, the Aphthartodocetae and the
, and an exegesis of the "Gospel of John".
Persian and Parthian-speaking
used the name of Mithra current in their time ("Mihryazd", q.e. Mithra-yazata) for two different Manichaean angels.
During the 4th and 5th century AD Thebeste was a centre of Manichaeism as well. In June 1918 a codex of 26 leaves written in Latin by
was discovered in a cave near the city.
The renewed adoption from
in the 8th century (Tang Dynasty) is documented with the writings of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yi Jing and the Ceylonese Buddhist monk Bu Kong.
Aside from the monasteries that joined Pachomius' federation of cenobitic monasteries, there were also other cenobitic groups, both Christian and non-Christian, who decided not to join him. The Melitians and the
are examples of these cenobitic groups.
tried to assimilate their religion along with Islam in the Arab Islamic empires. Relatively little is known about the religion during the first century of Islamic rule. During the early period of the Arab Islamic empire, Manichaeism attracted many followers. It had a significant appeal among the Muslim society especially among the elites. Due to the appeal of its teachings, many Muslims adopted the ideas of its theology and some even became dualists. An apologia for Manichaeism which is ascribed to Ibn al-Muqaffa', defended its phantasmagorical cosmogony and attacked the fideism of Islam and other monotheistic religions. According to some accounts, even the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid II was a follower of Mani. The
had sufficient structure to have a head of their community. Under the 8th-century Abbasids, Arabic "zindiq" and the adjectival "zandaqa" could denote many different things, though it seems primarily (or at least initially) to have signified a follower of Manichaeism however its true meaning is not known. In the ninth century, it is reported that the Muslim Caliph Al-Ma'mun tolerated a community of
. During the early period of Abbasids, the
underwent persecution. The third Abbasid caliph al-Mahdi persecuted the
, establishing an inquisition against dualists who if being found guilty of heresy refused to renounce their beliefs, were executed. Their persecution was finally ended in 780s by Harun al-Rashid. During the reign of the Caliph Al-Muqtadir, many
fled from Mesopotamia to Khorasan from fear of persecution and the base of the religion was later shifted to Samarkand.
The reason for these persecutions are not easy to determine. "Zandaqa" was viewed as a threat to Islam, to Muslim society, and to the state. In the 8th century, Islamic norms were still under development and had not yet crystallized, and Muslims were still a small minority in the vast territories ruled by the caliphate, and even those who had converted were perceived to have been only "imperfectly" Islamized. Many of these converts had previously been
, and Manichaeaism with its well developed missionary ideals had undergone a slight resurgence during early caliphate rule. As such, the
were perceived as a threat to the security of the Muslim religious elite and to the Abbasid state. The threat was perceived to be especially evident in the quasi-scientific manner in which the
posed unsettling questions, their skill at creating a favourable impression in public debate, and their ability in defending their own intellectually-appealing world-view.
The Fundamental Epistle, or Epistle of Foundation, (Latin: "Epistola Fundamenti"), was one of the sacred writings of the Manichaean religion, written by the founder Mani (c. 210–276 CE), originally in Syriac. Since none of the original Syriac writings of Manichaeism remain, we only have translations of small sections of this book, made by either
. One of the most well-known references to this book is found in the writings of Saint Augustine (354-430 CE), who before converting to Christianity, was a Manichaean "hearer" for a number of years. In two of his anti-Manichaean books, he quotes a few paragraphs of the Fundamental Epistle.
Noticeably absent from Kartir's list is any immediately identifiable mention of
, who were intermittently persecuted by the Sassanid establishment, also by Kartir, who is explicitly named as one of Mani's persecutor's in Manichaean sources. There are three suggested reasons to explain this anomaly: a) The conventional view is that Kartir includes them under the term 'Maktak'; b) an alternate position is that Kartir's text dates from the early period of Bahram I's rule when Mani still had Shapur I's and Hormizd I's protection; c) the third view is that
are included in 'zandik'.
The overall idea of cenobitic monasticism cannot be traced to a single source, however, as many have tried to do in calling Pachomius the "founder" of the tradition, but rather is thanks to the ideas and work of numerous groups, including the aforementioned Melitians,
, Elkasites, Buddhists and, of course, the Pachomians.
Copyright © 2017