Synonyms for manichaeism or Related words with manichaeism
Examples of "manichaeism"
is the form of
(摩尼教 "Móníjiào" or 明教 "Míngjiào", "bright religion") transmitted and practiced in China.
was introduced into China in the Tang dynasty, through Central Asian communities. It never rose to prominence, and was officially banned and persecuted through the suppression of non-Chinese religions started by the Emperor Wuzong of Tang.
, like Christian Gnosticism and Zurvanism, was inherently universalist.
By 1132–1133 or later, the rebellion was linked to
. Though not originally connected, in the public and historical conscience it became confused with the Taizhou unrest of April–June 1121, where
in China assumed certain Chinese characteristics, assimilating to both Buddhism and Taoism.
Zoroastrianism is often compared with the
. Nominally an Iranian religion, it has its origins in the Middle-Eastern Gnosticism. Superficially such a comparison seem apt, as both are dualistic and
adopted many of the Yazatas for its own pantheon. Gherardo Gnoli, in "The Encyclopaedia of Religion", says that "we can assert that
has its roots in the Iranian religious tradition and that its relationship to Mazdaism, or Zoroastrianism, is more or less like that of Christianity to Judaism".
, founded by Mani, was influential from North Africa in the West, to China in the East. Its influence subtly continues in Western Christian thought via Saint Augustine of Hippo, who converted to Christianity from
, which he passionately denounced in his writings, and whose writings continue to be influential among Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox theologians. An important principle of
was its dualistic nature.
may have influenced Christianity continues to be debated.
may have influenced the Bogomils, Paulicians, and Cathars. However, these groups left few records, and the link between them and Manichaeans is tenuous. Regardless of its accuracy the charge of
was levelled at them by contemporary orthodox opponents, who often tried to make contemporary heresies conform to those combatted by the church fathers. Whether the dualism of the Paulicians, Bogomils, and Cathars and their belief that the world was created by a Satanic demiurge were due to influence from
is impossible to determine. The Cathars apparently adopted the Manichaean principles of church organization. Priscillian and his followers may also have been influenced by
. The Manichaeans preserved many apocryphal Christian works, such as the Acts of Thomas, that would otherwise have been lost.
Mani, founder of the Persian faith
, also claimed to be the Seal of the Prophets and the last prophet.
Little is known about them, except that they were one of the numerous sects through which the original
continued to flourish. (cf. Bogomils, Cathars, and Paulicians.) They appear to have professed a very strict and uncompromising form of
, rejecting all doctrinal modifications as to the eternity of the evil principle, and its absolute equality with the good principle.
He is the editor or co-editor of a number of academic publications, mostly on ancient magic and on
Since its introduction,
was deeply sinicised in its style, adapting to the Chinese cultural context. After the Tang,
survived among the population and had a profound influence on the tradition of the Chinese folk religious sects integrating with the Maitreyan beliefs.
Mar Ammo, a disciple of Mani, founder of
, led a mission to Abarshahr accompanied by the Parthian prince Ardavan and several others during the 260s. It is suggested that Ardavan, as a Manichean member of the Parthian elite, helped Mar Ammo to preach amongst the Parthian nobility and spread
An example of how inaccurate some of these accounts could be is seen in the account of the origins of
contained in the "Acta Archelai". This was a Greek anti-manichaean work written before 348, most well known in its Latin version, which was regarded as an accurate account of
until the end of the 19th century:
In order to control trade along the Silk Road, the Uyghurs established a trading relationship with the Sogdian merchants who controlled the oases of Turkestan. As described above, the Uyghur adoption of
was one aspect of this relationship—choosing
over Buddhism may have been motivated by a desire to show independence from Tang influence. It must be noted that not all Uyghurs supported conversion—an inscription at Karabalghasun states that Manichaens tried to divert people from their ancient shamanistic beliefs. A rather partisan account from a Uyghur-Manichaen text of that period demonstrates the unbridled enthusiasm of the khaghan for
Tengrism was brought to Eastern Europe by the early Huns and Bulgars. It lost importance when the Uighuric kagans proclaimed
the state religion in the eighth century.
A book called "Acts of the Disputation with Manes", which was written during the close of the 3rd century or later, speaks about the Basilidean origins of
The Uighurs abandoned their state religion of
in favour of Buddhism, and adopted the agricultural lifestyle and many of the customs of the oasis-dwellers.
In the ancient Gnostic sect of
, the Buddha is listed among the prophets who preached the word of God before Mani.
The religious and philosophical teaching called Mazdakism, which its founder, Mazdak, regarded as a reformed and purified version of Zoroastrianism displays remarkable influences from
Until discoveries in the 1900s of original sources, the only sources for
were descriptions and quotations from non-Manichaean authors, either Christian, Muslim, Buddhist or Zoroastrian. While often criticizing
, they also quoted directly from Manichaean scriptures. This enabled Isaac de Beausobre, writing in the 18th century, to create a comprehensive work on
, relying solely on anti-Manichaean sources. Thus quotations and descriptions in Greek and Arabic have long been known to scholars, as have the long quotations in Latin by Saint Augustine, and the extremely important quotation in Syriac by Theodore bar Khonai.
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