Synonyms for marcionites or Related words with marcionites
Examples of "marcionites"
Tertullian attributes the practice of 1 Corinthians "baptised for the dead" to the
Mainstream Christian theology sees these as references to Satan ("the Devil"), but Gnostics,
, and Manicheans saw these as references to Yahweh (God) himself.
Most of the protocanonical books were broadly accepted among early Christians. However, some were omitted by a few of the earliest canons, The
, an early Christian sect that was dominant in some parts of the Roman Empire, recognised a reduced canon excluding the entire Hebrew Bible in favor of a modified version of Luke and ten of the Pauline epistles.
believed that the visible world is an evil creation of a crude, cruel, jealous, angry demiurge, Yahweh. According to this teaching, people should oppose him, abandon his world, not create people, and trust in the good God of mercy, foreign and distant.
John Chrysostom (c. 347–407) mockingly attributes to the
of the late 4th century a similar practice: if one of their followers who was being prepared for baptism died before receiving baptism, the dead person's corpse was addressed with the question whether he wished to be baptized, whereupon another answered affirmatively and was baptized for the dead person.
held that the God of the Hebrew Bible (known to some Gnostics as Yaltabaoth) was inconsistent, jealous, wrathful and genocidal, and that the material world he created was defective, a place of suffering; the God who made such a world is a bungling or malicious demiurge.
The theory is further developed in a later work (1835, the year in which David Strauss' "Leben Jesu" was published), "Über die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe". In this Baur attempts to prove that the false teachers mentioned in the Second Epistle to Timothy and Epistle to Titus are the Gnostics, particularly the
, of the 2nd century, and consequently that the Pastoral Epistles were produced in the middle of the 2nd century in opposition to Gnosticism.
He was born at Kynai also known as "Qani" (where the apostle Saint Mari was buried) of an immoral women who exposed her child to the elements. He was subsequently educated by the Christian church and ordained a priest. He founded a monastery and a school at Dair Qoni. In this capacity, he served as the teacher of Mar Abba. After a career in which he successfully converted several
, he retired to Tella on the Serser River.
Everett Ferguson, in chapter 18 of "The Canon Debate", makes a note that: "[Wolfram] Kinzig suggests that it was Marcion who usually called his Bible "testamentum" [Latin for testament]". In the same chapter, Ferguson also says that Tertullian criticizes Marcion regarding the naming of the books in his list. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the
"were perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known".
Gieseler and Neander, with more probability, derive the sect from the
. Muratori, Mosheim, Gibbon, Gilles Quispel and others regard the Paulicians as the forerunners of the Cathars, but the differences between them in organization, ascetic practices, etc., undermine this opinion.The Paulicians were branded as Jews, Mohammedans, Arians, and Manichæans, it is likely that their opponents employed the appellations merely as term of abuse. They call themselves Christians or "True Believers".
Apart from the extreme example of the
, isolated disagreements over certain books' canonicity continued for centuries. Athanasius, a fourth-century bishop of Alexandria, omitted Esther from his list, potentially having been influenced by an early 22-book Jewish canon, possibly the one mentioned but not specified by Josephus. Theodore of Mopsuestia omitted Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Job, and Ezra-Nehemiah to obtain a listing of 22 books.
The development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, and the relationship between the various opinions is a matter of continuing academic debate. Since most Christians today subscribe to the doctrines established by the Nicene Creed, modern Christian theologians tend to regard the early debates as a unified orthodox position against a minority of heretics. Other scholars, drawing upon distinctions between Jewish Christians, Pauline Christianity, and other groups such as
, argue that early Christianity was always fragmented, with contemporaneous competing beliefs.
On the other hand, because of the rejection of the Old Testament which originates in the Jewish Bible, the
have been believed by some Christians to be anti-Jewish. The terms "Marcionism" and "neo-Marcionism" has sometimes been used in modern times to refer to anti-Jewish tendencies in Christian churches, especially when such tendencies have been thought to be surviving residues of ancient Marcionism.
A primary difference between
and Gnostics was that the Gnostics based their theology on "secret wisdom" (as, for example, Valentinius who claimed to receive the "secret wisdom" from Theudas who received it direct from Paul) of which they claimed to be in possession, whereas Marcion based his theology on the contents of the Letters of Paul and the recorded sayings of Jesus — in other words, an argument from scripture, with Marcion defining what was and was not scripture. Also, the Christology of the
is thought to have been primarily Docetic, denying the human nature of Christ. This may have been due to the unwillingness of
to believe that Jesus was the son of both God the Father and the demiurge. Scholars of Early Christianity disagree on whether to classify Marcion as a Gnostic: Adolf Von Harnack does not classify Marcion as a Gnostic, whereas G. R. S. Mead does. Von Harnack argued that Marcion was not a Gnostic in the strict sense because Marcion rejected elaborate creation myths, and did not claim to have special revelation or secret knowledge. Mead claimed Marcionism makes certain points of contact with Gnosticism in its view that the creator of the material world is not the true deity, rejection of materialism and affirmation of a transcendent, purely good spiritual realm in opposition to the evil physical realm, the belief Jesus was sent by the "True" God to save humanity, the central role of Jesus in revealing the requirements of salvation, the belief Paul had a special place in the transmission of this "wisdom", and its docetism. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article on Marcion:
The development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, and the relationship between the various opinions is a matter of continuing theological debate. Since most Christians today subscribe to the doctrines established by the Nicene Creed, modern Christian theologians tend to regard the early debates as a unified orthodox position (see also Proto-orthodox Christianity and Paleo-orthodoxy) against a minority of heretics. Other scholars, drawing upon, among other things, distinctions between Jewish Christians, Pauline Christians, and other groups such as Gnostics and
, argue that early Christianity was fragmented, with contemporaneous competing orthodoxies.
The development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, and the relationship between the various opinions is a matter of continuing academic debate. Since most Christians today subscribe to the doctrines established by the Nicene Creed, modern Christian theologians tend to regard the early debates as a unified orthodox position against a minority of heretics. Other scholars, drawing upon, among other things, distinctions between Jewish Christians, Pauline Christians, and other groups such as Gnostics and
, argue that early Christianity was fragmented, with contemporaneous competing orthodoxies.
In Gnosticism, Eve is often seen as the embodiment of the supreme feminine principle, called Barbelo (from Arb-Eloh), barbeloth, or barthenos. She is equated with the light-maiden of Sophia, creator of the word (Logos) of God, the "thygater tou photos" or simply the Virgin Maiden, "Parthenos". In other texts she is equated with Zoe (Life). In other Gnostic texts, such as "The Hypostasis of the Archons" (The Reality of the Rulers), the Pistis Sophia is equated with Eve's daughter, Norea, the wife of Seth. Especially among the
, women in Gnosticism were considered equal to men, being revered as prophets, teachers, traveling evangelists, faith healers, priests and even bishops.
The modern term itself is derived from a phrase "baptised for the dead" occurring in one verse of the New Testament (), though the meaning of that phrase is an open question among scholars. Early heresiologists Epiphanius of Salamis ("Panarion" 28) and Chrysostom ("Homilies" 40) attributed the practice respectively to the Cerinthians and to the
, whom they identified as heretical "Gnostic" groups. For that reason, the practice was forbidden by the early Church, and is therefore not practiced in modern mainstream Christianity, whether Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, or any Protestant churches.
Walter Bauer opened the modern discussion on John with his book "Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum." Bauer's thesis is that "the heretics probably outnumbered the orthodox" in the early Christian world and that heresy and orthodoxy were not as narrowly defined as we now define them. He was "convinced that none of the Apostolic Fathers had relied on the authority of the Fourth Gospel. It was the gnostics, the
, and the Montanists who first used it and introduced it to the Christian community."
Ophite teaching was, most likely, dying out in the days of Hippolytus; in the time of Epiphanius it was not absolutely extinct, but the notices in his work would lead us to think of it as but the eccentric doctrine of some stray heretic here and there, and not to have counted many adherents. In the 5th century Theodoret tells ("Heresies" 1:24) of having found serpent worship practised in his diocese by people whom he calls
, but whom we may believe to have been really Ophites.
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