Synonyms for mastalgia or Related words with mastalgia
Examples of "mastalgia"
- Kessler JH. The effect of supraphysiologic levels of iodine on patients with cyclic
. Breast J. 2004;10(4):328-336. (PubMed)
Clinical studies have demonstrated effectiveness of standardised and controlled medications produced from extract of the plant in the management of premenstrual stress syndrome (PMS), and cyclical breast pain (
). The medication is recommended in Germany.
"Duct ectasia syndrome" is a synonym for nonpuerperal mastitis but the term has also been occasionally used to describe special cases of fibrocystic diseases,
or as a wastebasket definition of benign breast disease.
Cyclical breast pain (cyclical
) is very often associated with fibrocystic breast changes or duct ectasia and believed to be caused by aberrations in dynamic hormonal changes mainly involving prolactin response to thyrotropin. Some degree of cyclical breast tenderness is normal in the menstrual cycle, and is usually associated with menstruation and/or premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Many cases of myocardial infarction (heart attack) patients have been re-considered and improperly diagnosed, due to the identical nature of the symptoms. In females, it is often misdiagnosed as
. Costochondritis symptoms are similar to Tietze's, the prime difference being that the pain radiates to the arms and shoulders in the latter.
Breast pain (also known as breast tenderness, mastodynia, mammalgia, and
from the Greek μαστός "mastos", "breast" and ἄλγος "algos", "pain") is a medical symptom. Pain and discomfort may range from minor to severely incapacitating. Breast pain during lactation or after weaning is not included into this definition but is usually classified as breast engorgement or mastitis.
Other side effects associated with low-dose COCPs are leukorrhea (increased vaginal secretions), reductions in menstrual flow,
(breast tenderness), and decrease in acne. Side effects associated with older high-dose COCPs include nausea, vomiting, increases in blood pressure, and melasma (facial skin discoloration); these effects are not strongly associated with low-dose formulations.
A cyst of Montgomery may be asymptomatic. Yet, a cyst of Montgomery usually is diagnosed when a female patient, 10–20 years of age, complains to a healthcare professional of breast pain (
), inflammation or a palpable nodule in the breast. The diagnosis is made clinically, when a palpable nodule is felt in the retroareolar area.
NET is used as a hormonal contraceptive in combination with an estrogen – usually ethinylestradiol (EE) – in combined oral contraceptive pills and alone in progestogen-only pills. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, NET can be used to treat premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, irregular menstruation, menopausal symptoms (in combination with estrogen), or to postpone a period. It is also commonly used to help prevent uterine hemorrhage in complicated non-surgical or pre-surgical gynecologic cases and in treating non responsive cyclical
Afimoxifene, also known as 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, 4-HT, OHTAM, others), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group and the major active metabolite of tamoxifen. The drug is under development by Ascend Therapeutics under the tentative trademark TamoGel as a topical gel for the treatment of cyclical
(breast pain). It has completed a phase II clinical trial for this indication, but further studies are required before afimoxifene can be approved for this indication and marketed.
The breast is susceptible to numerous benign and malignant conditions. The most frequent benign conditions are puerperal mastitis, fibrocystic breast changes and
. Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women and it is one of the leading causes of death among women. Factors that appear to be implicated in decreasing the risk of breast cancer are regular breast examinations by health care professionals, regular mammograms, self-examination of breasts, healthy diet, and exercise to decrease excess body fat.
Mokbel's clinical interests in the field of breast surgery include the early detection of breast cancer, breast ductoscopy, minimally-invasive breast surgery, sentinel node biopsy, skin-sparing mastectomy, breast reconstruction, cosmetic breast surgery, prevention of breast cancer, genetic predisposition, integrative oncology and the management of benign conditions including breast cysts,
and fibroadenomas. Mokbel has extensive experience in the field of reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery including augmentation mammoplasty (replacement of implants and correction of contracture), reduction mammoplasty and mastopexy.
The term has several meanings on histological and symptomatic levels and on both levels "usage" overlaps with
, fibrocystic disease and specific sub- or superclasses of nonpuerperal mastitis. While this is not ideal for a definition it results from actual usage in international literature. Because research literature regarding duct ectasia is anything but abundant it is probably easiest to determine the exact meaning(s) intended by the respective authors on a case by case basis and this section can offer only a few hints.
He gave a clinical description of each condition, and related it to both anatomy and physiology. His descriptions of management of the various conditions are outmoded in the 21st century. But his descriptions and illustrations of the conditions are still useful today. In plates vii and viii, for examples, one can find seven well-executed microscopic illustrations of two cases of lobular carcinomae. The book also contains descriptions of a typical mammary fistula; treatment of the same by seton stitch; breast cysts; and
and galactorrhea. Mansel, Sweetland, and Hughes describe the macroscopic and microscopic illustrations of duct ectasia and fibroadenoma in the plates as "ahead of their time", also observing that the descriptions of duct ectasia pre-date the work of Joseph Colt Bloodgood by half a century.
Ginseng contains stimulants, but may produce side effect including high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and
. Ginseng may also lead to induction of mania in depressed patients who mix it with antidepressants. One of the most common and characteristic symptoms of acute overdose of ginseng from the genus "Panax" is bleeding. Symptoms of mild overdose with "Panax" ginseng may include dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, insomnia, increased body temperature, increased blood pressure, edema, decreased appetite, increased sexual desire, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue. Symptoms of gross overdose with "Panax" ginseng may include nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, decreased sensitivity and reaction to light, decreased heart rate, cyanotic facial complexion, red face, seizures, convulsions, and delirium.
Horrobin, within several years of founding Efamol, was selling EPO in more than 25 countries. He marketed the supplement as a treatment for "PMS, alcoholism, pregnancy-induced hypertension, atopic eczema, elevated cholesterol levels, hypertension, scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis,
(breast pain) and other problems", but according to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Horrobin did not satisfactorily demonstrate the efficacy and safety of his supplement. The FDA advised Efamol not to ship EPO to the United States without obtaining approval. Horrobin agreed, but began making shipments. Horrobin conspired with General Nutrition, Inc. to process Efamol into capsules in California; it would then be sold to General Nutrition and relabeled for resale under a different brand name. According to an FDA investigation, Horrobin suggested marketing strategies to circumvent the laws, including coaching retail representatives on making oral claims to customers, "planting articles on their research in the media, deploying researchers to make claims on their behalf, using radio phone-ins" and other tactics. Horrobin wrote to General Nutrition, "Obviously you could not advertise Efamol for these purposes but equally obviously there are ways of getting the information across". As a result, the FDA began to seize shipments of EPO and handed down felony indictments to General Nutrition, several executives and store managers for "conspiring to defraud the FDA and violating provisions of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act". General Nutrition and its president entered guilty pleas and paid fines, but Horrobin was not prosecuted.
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