Synonyms for mastodynia or Related words with mastodynia
Examples of "mastodynia"
Cyclic treatment with low-dose (10 mg/day) dydrogesterone has been found to be effective in the treatment of fibrocystic breast changes and associated
Cyclic treatment with low-dose (10 mg/day) medrogestone has been found to be effective in the treatment of fibrocystic breast changes and associated
Breast pain (also known as breast tenderness,
, mammalgia, and mastalgia from the Greek μαστός "mastos", "breast" and ἄλγος "algos", "pain") is a medical symptom. Pain and discomfort may range from minor to severely incapacitating. Breast pain during lactation or after weaning is not included into this definition but is usually classified as breast engorgement or mastitis.
"Vitex agnus-castus" is used to alleviate symptoms of various gynecological problems. All evidence is limited to standardised controlled extracts such as used in Germany, different extracts or herbal mixes may have significantly different properties and safety issues. Some of the modern uses include premenstrual syndrome, abnormal uterine bleeding disorders and
Known estrogen-dependent conditions include
(breast pain/tenderness), breast fibroids, mammoplasia, macromastia (breast hypertrophy), gynecomastia, breast cancer, precocious puberty in girls, melasma, menorrhagia, endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, uterine cancers (e.g., endometrial cancer), ovarian cancer, and hyperestrogenism in males such as in certain conditions like cirrhosis and Klinefelter's syndrome.
Danazol, an estrogen biosynthesis inhibitor, tamoxifen, an antagonistic modulator of the estrogen receptor, and bromocriptine, a prolactin-lowering D receptor agonist, are the main drugs used in the treatment of
, and a meta-analysis of clinical trials reported that all three have been found to be significantly effective in the treatment of the condition.
Dopaminergic compounds ("diterpenes with prolactin-suppressive effects that were almost identical in their prolactin-suppressive properties to dopamine itself") present in "Vitex agnus castus" seem likely to be the clinically important compounds which improve premenstrual
and possibly also psycho-somatic symptoms of PMS.
Androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), powerfully suppress the action of estrogen in the breasts. At least one way that they do this is by reducing the expression of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. In women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who are completely insensitive to androgens and have only modest levels of estrogen (50 pg/ml), the relatively low levels of estrogen are capable of mediating significant breast development, and the breast sizes of CAIS women, on average, are in fact actually larger than those of non-CAIS women. In males treated with antiandrogens, gynecomastia (enlargement of the breasts in males) and
(breast tenderness/pain) commonly occur. Antiandrogens, for instance spironolactone, are also known to cause breast enlargement and
in women. Some examples of widely used and highly-potent antiandrogens include cyproterone acetate and bicalutamide.
Topical application of progesterone with the intention of systemic therapy should not be equated with local treatment. Although it is not approved for use in menopausal HRT, topical progesterone is registered in some countries under the brand name Progestogel as a 1% gel for direct application to the breasts to treat premenstrual
(breast pain). It has been found in clinical studies to inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast epithelial cells and to abolish breast pain and tenderness in women with the condition.
Indications of breast cancer other than a lump may include thickening different from the other breast tissue, one breast becoming larger or lower, a nipple changing position or shape or becoming inverted, skin puckering or dimpling, a rash on or around a nipple, discharge from nipple/s, constant pain in part of the breast or armpit, and swelling beneath the armpit or around the collarbone. Pain ("
") is an unreliable tool in determining the presence or absence of breast cancer, but may be indicative of other breast health issues.
Anovulation is usually associated with specific symptoms. However, it is important to note that they are not necessarily all displayed simultaneously. Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) occurs in about 20% of women with ovulatory dysfunction. Infrequent and light menstruation occurs in about 40% of women with ovulatory dysfunction. Another potential symptom is irregular menstruation, where five or more menstrual cycles a year are five or more days shorter or longer than the length of the average cycle. Absence of
(breast pain or tenderness) occurs in about 20% of women with ovulatory problems. Also possible is increased body mass and facial hair, which is relatively easy to treat, and is often associated with PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome.
Due to D receptor blockade, domperidone causes hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia can suppress the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, in turn suppressing the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and resulting in hypogonadism (low sex hormone (e.g., testosterone, estradiol) levels). As such, male patients may experience low libido, erectile dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. Also in accordance with hyperprolactinemia, 10–15% of female patients have been reported to experience mammoplasia (breast enlargement),
(breast pain/tenderness), galactorrhea (inappropriate or excessive milk production/secretion), and amenorrhea (cessation of menstrual cycles) with domperidone treatment. Gynecomastia has been reported in males treated with domperidone, and galactorrhea could occur in males as well.
Mammoplasia is the normal or spontaneous enlargement of the breasts. Mammoplasia occurs normally during puberty and pregnancy in women, as well as during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. When it occurs in males, it is called gynecomastia and is considered to be pathological. When it occurs in females and is extremely excessive, it is called macromastia (also known as gigantomastia or breast hypertrophy) and is similarly considered to be pathological. Mammoplasia may be due to breast engorgement, which is temporary enlargement of the breasts caused by the production and storage of breast milk in association with lactation and/or galactorrhea (excessive or inappropriate production of milk).
(breast tenderness/pain) frequently co-occurs with mammoplasia.
Topical application of progesterone with the intention of systemic therapy should not be equated with local treatment. Despite the fact that it is not approved for use in menopausal HRT, topical progesterone is registered in some countries under the brand name Progestogel as a 1% gel for direct local application to the breasts to treat premenstrual
(breast pain). It has been found in clinical studies to inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast epithelial cells and to abolish breast pain and tenderness in women with the condition. The effectiveness of topical progesterone for this indication may be related in part to the fact that the site of application of topical progesterone has been found to significantly influence its absorption. A study observed a significant increase in serum levels of progesterone when it was applied as a topical ointment to the breasts but not when it was applied to other areas like the thigh or abdomen.
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