Synonyms for menarche or Related words with menarche
Examples of "menarche"
at different ages. The timing of
is influenced by female biology, as well as genetic and environmental factors, especially nutritional factors. The average age of
has declined over the last century, but the magnitude of the decline and the factors responsible remain subjects of contention. The worldwide average age of
is very difficult to estimate accurately, and it varies significantly by geographical region, race, ethnicity and other characteristics. Various estimates have placed it at 13. Some estimates suggest that the "median" age of
worldwide is 14, and that there is a later age of onset in Asian populations compared to the West. The average age of
is about 12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK and 13.06 ± 0.10 years in Iceland. A study of girls in Istanbul, Turkey, found the median age at
to be 12.74 years.
In very rare instances,
may occur at an unusually early age, preceding thelarche and other signs of puberty. This is termed isolated premature
, but other causes of bleeding must be investigated and excluded. Growth is usually normal. Isolated premature
is rarely the first manifestation of precocious puberty.
In preindustrial societies,
typically occurred later than in current industrial societies. After
, menstruation was suppressed during much of a woman's reproductive life by either pregnancy or nursing. Reductions in age of
and lower fertility rates mean that modern women menstruate far more often than they did under the conditions prevalent for most of human evolutionary history.
For young women in many cultures, the first menstruation is a marker that signifies a change in status. Post-
, the young woman enters a stage called maidenhood, the stage between
and marriage. There are cultures that have in past centuries, and in present, practiced rites of passage for a girl experiencing
Premature or delayed
should be investigated if
begins before 9 years, if
has not begun by age 15, if there is no breast development by age 13, or if there is no period by 3 years after the onset of breast development.
There are two types of amenorrhea. A woman who has been having her period and then stops menstruating for ninety days or more is said to have secondary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is characterized by delayed
is the onset of a girl’s first period. Delayed
may be associated with delay of the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
The average age of
in the United States is about 12.5 years. In postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after
, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.
Where an underlying cause can be identified, treatment may be directed at this. Clearly heavy periods at
and menopause may settle spontaneously (the
being the start and menopause being the cessation of periods).
No specific hormonal signal for
as a discrete event is thought to be the relatively chance result of the gradual thickening of the endometrium induced by rising but fluctuating pubertal estrogen.
During the first two years after
50% of the menstrual cycles could be anovulatories.
is the culmination of a series of physiological and anatomic processes of puberty:
In some Indian communities, young women are given a special
ceremony called Ruthu Sadangu.
Another study looked at psychological/social stress in the developmental environment, the age of first
and the age of giving first birth to offspring, the data suggests that the family environment with father absence makes the family support more uncertain, which might trigger higher stress, resulting in early
is the sign of puberty, females are more likely to engage in sexual activities earlier because of the facilitation of early
. Unrestricted female sexuality could also be explained by females who lack paternal input would seek outside for social support due to uncertain future and uncertain availability of males.
On the other hand, not every girl follows the typical pattern, and some girls ovulate before the first menstruation. Although unlikely, it is possible for a girl who has engaged in sexual intercourse shortly before her
to conceive and become pregnant, which would delay her
until after the end of the pregnancy. This goes against the widely held assumption that a woman cannot become pregnant until after
. A young age at
is not correlated with a young age at first sexual intercourse.
Common pediatric gynecologic complaints include vaginal discharge, pre-
bleeding, itching, and accounts of sexual abuse.
In females, changes in the primary sex characteristics involve growth of the uterus, vagina, and other aspects of the reproductive system.
, the beginning of menstruation, is a relatively late development which follows a long series of hormonal changes. Generally, a girl is not fully fertile until several years after
, as regular ovulation follows
by about two years. Unlike males, therefore, females usually appear physically mature before they are capable of becoming pregnant.
In the United States, public schools have a sex education program that teaches girls about menstruation and what to expect at the onset of
(often this takes place during the 4th grade). Historically menstruation has been a social taboo and girls were taught about
and menstruation by their mothers or a female role model. Then, and to an extent now, menstruation was a private matter and a girl's
was not a community phenomenon.
A medical study found that Mayan girls entered into
at around 15.1 years old.
The first menstrual period occurs after the onset of pubertal growth, and is called
. The average age of
is 12 to 15. However, it may start as early as eight. The average age of the first period is generally later in the developing world, and earlier in the developed world. The average age of
has changed little in the United States since the 1950s.
There were few systematic studies of timing of
before the later half of the 20th century. Most older estimates of average timing of
were based on observation of a small homogeneous population not necessarily representative of the larger population, or based on recall by adult women, which is also susceptible to various forms of error. Most sources agree that the average age of
in girls in modern societies has declined, though the reasons and the degree remain subjects of controversy. From the sixth to the fifteenth centuries in Europe, most women reached
on average at about 14, between the ages of 12 and 15. A large North American survey reported only a 2-3 month decline from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s. A 2011 study found that each 1 kg/m increase in childhood body-mass index (BMI) can be expected to result in a 6.5% higher absolute risk of early
(before age 12 years).
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