Synonyms for mensalvas or Related words with mensalvas
Examples of "mensalvas"
, also archived as Chris D.
and Chris D. Mensalves, (June 24, 1909 – April 11, 1978) was a Filipino American union organizer most active during the 1940s and 1950s. A communist and leader of the immigrant Filipino labor movement in the Pacific Northwest,
was closely associated with famous Filipino American author and activist Carlos Bulosan, as well as Ernesto Mangaoang and Philip Vera Cruz.
It noted that even as
was released under a writ of "habeas corpus", Mangaoang was held for 70 days before winning the right to release on bail.
Ernesto Mangaoang (19021968) was a Filipino American labor organizer. A communist and longtime leader of immigrant Filipino laborers, Mangaoang was closely associated with Chris
, and was a personal friend of the famous Filipino American intellectual and activist Carlos Bulosan.
Filipino labor leaders like Larry Itliong, Andy Imutan, Chris
, Ernesto Mangaoang, Carlos Bulosan, and Philip Vera Cruz all worked out of Stockton at one time or another. Historic labor union meetings were held at the Mariposa Hotel on Lafayette Street.
and Mangaoang were at the forefront of the ground-breaking asparagus strike that successfully concluded in 1939. Until World War II, Filipino Americans, rather than Mexican Americans, were the primary groups performing agriculture labor. These courageous Filipino farm workers and labor leaders are the unsung heroes behind the success of the UFW and its iconic leader Cesar Chavez.
During the McCarthy Era,
and other leaders of the ILWU Local 7, including Ernesto Mangaoang, were arrested and charged for being associated with the Communist party. The McCarran International Security Act of 1950 required the registration of any individual with communist associations. Once registered, immigration officials filed a motion to reclassify communists as "subversive" aliens, which are considered grounds for deportation. Chris
was released under habeas corpus and he made plans to move to the Philippines after the event. Not wanting to bring more attention to the case, he temporarily settled in Hawaii to participate in the Longshoremen's Union there as a business agent and staff organizer.
invited Carlos Bulosan to edit the yearbook for ILWU Local 37. The yearbook celebrates the leftist political orientation of the union, and attributes its victories against the government legislations of Taft-Hartley and the McCarran International Security Act to inter-union solidarity and dedication to liberalism.
was born to Mr. and Mrs. Juan
in the San Manuel, Pangasinan province of the Philippines. As the third youngest son in a family of five siblings, he belonged to a group of educated Filipinos whose ownership of small plots of land became increasingly threatened by wealthy landlords The Philippines had just become a colonial territory of the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War at this time. Because trade relations between the Philippines and the United States protected both from tariffs, the Philippines experienced rapid urbanization that put pressure on the agricultural sector to be more efficient through economies of scale. His primary schooling at Lingayen, the only school in Pangasinan, and the increasing economic pressure on his family pushed him to migrate in 1927 for educational opportunities.
Seeking to implement concretethough nonetheless radicalchanges to the largely immigrant workers' conditions, the union elected a course of putting pressure on the business owners to win better pay, demand decent housing, and doing away with a system of "hold back" policy under which capitalist growers kept half of a worker's pay until the end of the growing season. The union chose to organize a workers' walkout, and, together with Chris
, Mangaoang led the 1948 Stockton Strike in Stockton, California.
Mangoang's case, known as Mangaoang v. Boyd and proceeding all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1953, was a rare victory against the Red Scare of the McCarthy years: the Court upheld the appeals court decision that Mangaoang could not be deported under the Walter-McCarran Act. The attempted deportation of Mangaoang and
was successfully fended off by lawyers from the Communist Party USAthen itself facing McCarthyite repression and charged with violating the later-repealed sections of the 1940 Smith Act.
Mangaoang served as President of Local 266 of the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packinghouse, and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA) that represented Alaska cannery workers dispatched from Portland. In 1944, Local 266 was absorbed by UCAPAWA Local 7, based in Seattle, and Mangaoang became Local 7's Business Agent. The former Business Agent of Local 266, Chris
, would go on to become Local 7 President in 1949, continuing in the position when Local 7 became Local 37 of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union The organization is recognized as "the country's first Filipino-led union."
Some of the labor organizers whom Itliong met in his early days had ties to the Communist Party. Filipinos in California lead the way in unionization efforts among farmworkers in the 1930s and 40s. During World War II, Itliong served on a U.S. Army transport ship as a messman. After the war, he settled in the city of Stockton in California's Central Valley. In 1948, Itliong (along with Rudy Delvo, Chris
, Philip Vera Cruz, and Ernesto Mangaoang) became involved in the 1948 asparagus strike, which was the first major agriculture strike after World War II. Itliong served as the first shop steward of International Longshore and Warehouse Union Local 37, in Seattle, and was elected its vice-president in 1953. He served as secretary of the Filipino Community of Stockton from 1954 to 1956. In 1956, Itliong founded the Filipino Farm Labor Union in Stockton. In 1957, he was elected president of the Filipino Voters League in Stockton. By 1965, Itliong was leading the AFL–CIO union Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee; the majority of members of the committee were Filipinos who had in the 1930s arrived in the United States.
aspired to attend college in the University of California, Los Angeles to be a lawyer. He provided for his tuition and board by working as a "school boy" while getting involved with the community to establish the Pangasinan Association of Los Angeles. Dissatisfied with the discrimination and racism that he experienced as a Filipino immigrant, he ended up dropping out after three years to work in the farms. Despite the racial and gender discrimination that prevented him from access to opportunities, his years as a student still endowed him status and credibility within the Filipino community. "I thought I was going to complete my education here. I went to school in LA to be a lawyer. But I finally found out that Filipinos cannot practice law in this country. They cannot even own farms, nothing we can do. I got so disgusted I said, "Why am I studying law when I can't practice law in the United States.["] So I quit. I spent three years in college. And then I went to organize people on the farms.In those three years, his exposure to communism and labor activism prepared him to work as the business agent for Local 266 of the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packinghouse, and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA), which represented Filipino-American Alaska cannery workers based in Portland. After the death of his second wife, Margie Leitz, from childbirth in 1947, he served Local 7, based in Seattle, as their publicity director for a year before moving to Stockton to lead efforts in the 1948 Stockton Asparagus strike. The strike ended up being disastrous notwithstanding the subsequent court cases that drained the union members of their financial resources.
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