Synonyms for micropenis or Related words with micropenis
Examples of "micropenis"
Most eight- to fourteen-year-old boys referred for
do not have the
condition. Such concerns are usually explained by one of the following:
A treatment option for
is the insertion of a subcutaneous soft silicone implant under the penile skin. The procedure was developed by urologist James J. Elist.
An adult penis with an erect length of less than 7 cm or 2.76 inches but otherwise formed normally is referred to in a medical context as having the
condition. The condition affects 0.6% of men. Some of the identifiable causes are deficiency of pituitary growth hormone and/or gonadotropins, mild degrees of androgen insensitivity, a variety of genetic syndromes, and variations in certain homeobox genes. Some types of
can be addressed with growth hormone or testosterone treatment in early childhood. Operations are also available to increase penis size in cases of
in adults. However such procedures may result in serious complications.
Grade 2, the mildest form of PAIS, presents with a predominantly male phenotype that presents with minor signs of undermasculinized genitalia, such as isolated hypospadias, which can be severe. Hypospadias may manifest with a partially formed channel from the urethral opening to the glans. Until recently, it was thought that isolated
was not a manifestation of PAIS. However, in 2010, two cases of PAIS manifesting with isolated
Previously, it was erroneously thought that individuals with PAIS were always infertile; at least one case report has been published that describes fertile men that fit the criteria for grade 2 PAIS (
, penile hypospadias, and gynecomastia).
Grade 3, the most common phenotypic form of PAIS, features a predominantly male phenotype that is more severely undermasculinized, and typically presents with
and pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias with bifid scrotum.
This type of KS/HH rarely occurs in cases where males have had a history of un-descended testes and/or
and has been shown to be caused by monoallelic mutations.
In individuals with an ambiguous genital resulting in a macroclitoris/
, the genital may be capable of ejaculations as well as erections, but may be of insufficient size for penetrative sexual intercourse.
After evaluation to detect any of the conditions described above,
can often be treated in infancy with injections of various hormones, such as human chorionic gonadotropin and testosterone.
Throughout the 1980s pediatric surgery textbooks recommended female assignment and feminizing reconstructive surgery for XY infants with a severely inadequate phallus. Nevertheless, in the 1980s several factors began to induce a decline in the frequency of certain types of genital surgery. Pediatric endocrinologists had realized that some boys with
had deficiency of growth hormone which could be improved with hormones rather than surgery, and over the next decade a couple of reports suggested adult outcome as males was not as bad as expected for the boys with
who had not had surgery. Although textbooks were slower to reflect the change, few reassignment surgeries for isolated
were carried out by the 1990s.
In the last 50 years, the following procedures were most commonly performed to make the genitalia more typically female: virilization due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia; genital variations due, for example, to cloacal exstrophy; genital variations in infants with XY or mixed chromosomes to be raised as girls, such as gonadal dysgenesis, partial and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome,
, cloacal and bladder exstrophy. In the 21st-century, feminizing surgery to support reassignment of XY infants with non-ambiguous
has been largely discontinued, and surgical reassignment of XY infants with exstrophy or other significant variations or injuries is diminishing. See history of intersex surgery.
Of the abnormal conditions associated with
, most are conditions of reduced prenatal androgen production or effect, such as abnormal testicular development (testicular dysgenesis), Klinefelter syndrome, Leydig cell hypoplasia), specific defects of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone synthesis (17,20-lyase deficiency, 5α-reductase deficiency), androgen insensitivity syndromes, inadequate pituitary stimulation (gonadotropin deficiency), and other forms of congenital hypogonadism.
can also occur as part of many genetic malformation syndromes that do not involve the sex chromosomes. It is sometimes a sign of congenital growth-hormone deficiency or congenital hypopituitarism. Several homeobox genes affect penis and digit size without detectable hormone abnormalities.
Unilateral renal hypoplasia and aplasia have both been reported in individuals with ring 18. Hydronephrosis as well as pyelonephritis have also been reported in a few individuals. Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and
have been seen in males with ring 18, while females have been reported with hypoplastic labia.
The report and subsequent book about Reimer influenced several medical practices, reputations, and even current understanding of the biology of gender. The case accelerated the decline of sex reassignment and surgery for unambiguous XY infants with
, various other rare congenital malformations, or penile loss in infancy.
Genital defects characteristically seen in males include a
with a normally developed scrotum and testes. Sometimes, testicles may be undescended, or the patient may suffer from hypospadias. Female genital defects may include a reduced size clitoris and underdeveloped labia minora. Infrequently, the labia majora may also be underdeveloped. Some research has shown that females may experience vaginal atresia or haematocolpos.
Loss-of-function mutations in females can lead to infertility. In 46, XY individuals severe inactivation can cause male pseudohermaphroditism, as fetal Leydig cells during may not respond and induce masculinization. Less severe inactivation can result in hypospadias or a
The non-reproductive symptoms mentioned earlier in this article will be present in approximately half the cases. The most common of these is anosmia, which gives rise to the distinction between KS and HH. Males with classic HH may also have had a history of un-descended testicles and/or
Severe prenatal deficiency of GH, as occurs in congenital hypopituitarism, has little effect on fetal growth. However, prenatal and congenital deficiency can reduce the size of a male's penis, especially when gonadotropins are also deficient. Besides
in males, additional consequences of severe deficiency in the first days of life can include hypoglycemia and exaggerated jaundice (both direct and indirect hyperbilirubinemia).
A statistically significant correlation between penis size and the size of other body parts has not been found in research. Some environmental factors in addition to genetics, such as the presence of endocrine disruptors, can affect penis growth. An adult penis with an erect length of less than , but otherwise formed normally, is referred to in medicine as a
The malformations include chondrodysplasia (improper growth of bone and cartilage), situs inversus totalis (chest and abdominal organs all a mirror image of normal), cleft larynx and epiglottis, hexadactyly (six digits) on hands and feet, diaphragmatic hernia, pancreatic abnormalities, kidney abnormal on one side and absent on the other side,
and ambiguous genitalia, and imperforate anus.
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