Synonyms for migraineurs or Related words with migraineurs
Examples of "migraineurs"
Triptans are used for the treatment of severe migraine attacks or those that do not respond to NSAIDs or other over-the-counter drugs. Triptans are a mid-line treatment suitable for many
with typical attacks. They may not work for atypical or unusually severe migraine attacks, transformed migraine, or status (continuous) migrainosus.
He was also active in a number of associations. He was president of the Félag íslenskra fræða (Association of Icelandic Studies) from 1957 to 1962, secretary of the from 1960 to 1964 and served on the boards of various other associations, including the Félag leiðsögumanna (Association of Guides), the Samtök mígrenisjúklinga (Organization of
), and Menningartengsl Íslands og Ráðstjórnarríkjanna (Cultural Relations Iceland-USSR).
For children, the criteria are slightly less strict. For a pediatric diagnosis of migraine without aura, each attack need only last 1 hour to qualify. Also, pediatric migraines are frequently bilateral (on both sides of the head); unilaterality is not the typical pattern for
until late adolescence.
The Migraine Specific Quality of Life (MSQoL) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PRO or PROM) which assesses the quality of life of
. It is a 25-item questionnaire which is filled out by the patient and is used to determine how the patient's life has been affected by their migraines.
Illusory palinopsia may occur during a migraine aura, as do other diffuse illusory symptoms such as halos around objects, visual snow, dysmetropsia, and oscillopsia. In a rare migraine subtype known as persistent visual aura without infarction, illusory palinopsia symptoms (prolonged indistinct afterimages, light streaking, and visual trailing) persist after the migraine has abated. Alternatively, up to 10% of all
report of formed afterimages that only last a couple seconds and do not occur with other illusory symptoms. These momentary afterimages appear at a different location in the visual field than the original stimulus, occur a few times per month, and are affected by external light and motion. (variant image perseveration). Interestingly,
with these momentary afterimages report significantly fewer migraine headaches than
without these afterimages (4.3 vs. 14.4 attackers/year). These afterimages probably represent an overlap in hallucinatory and illusory palinopsia. Studying these momentary formed afterimages, in relation to alterations in cortical excitability, could advance our understanding of migraine pathogenesis and mechanisms associated with encoding visual memory.
Preventive drugs are used to reduce the frequency, duration, and severity of migraine attacks. Because of frequent unpleasant and sometimes debilitating side effects, preventive drugs are only prescribed for those
whose quality of life is significantly adversely affected. The most commonly prescribed drugs for migraine prevention are beta-blockers, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. The drugs are started at a low dose, which is gradually increased until therapeutic effects develop, the ceiling dose for the chosen drug is reached, or side effects become intolerable.
The goals of preventive therapy are to reduce the frequency, painfulness, and/or duration of migraines, and to increase the effectiveness of abortive therapy. Another reason to pursue these goals is to avoid medication overuse headache (MOH), otherwise known as rebound headache, which is a common problem among
. This is believed to occur in part due to overuse of pain medications, and can result in chronic daily headache.
Triptans such as sumatriptan are effective for both pain and nausea in up to 75% of
. They are the initially recommended treatments for those with moderate to severe pain or those with milder symptoms who do not respond to simple analgesics. The different forms available include oral, injectable, nasal spray, and oral dissolving tablets. In general, all the triptans appear equally effective, with similar side effects. However, individuals may respond better to specific ones.
There is limited data on treating the visual disturbances associated with HPPD, persistent visual aura, or post-head trauma visual disturbances, and pharmaceutical treatment is empirically-based. It is not clear if the etiology or type of illusory symptom influences treatment efficacy. Since the symptoms are usually benign, treatment is based on the patient’s zeal and willingness to try many different drugs. There are cases which report successful treatment with clonidine, clonazepam, lamotrigine, nimodipine, topiramate, verapamil, divalproex sodium, gabapentin, furosemide, and acetazolamide, as these drugs have mechanisms that decrease neuronal excitability. However, other patients report treatment failure from the same drugs. Based on the available evidence and side-effect profile, clonidine might be an attractive treatment option. Many patients report improvement from sunglasses. FL-41 tinted lenses may provide additional relief, as they have shown some efficacy in providing relief to visually-sensitive
The tendency to develop head pain when faced with a stressor or strong sensory stimuli can be explained in two ways. First, it may be a side effect of other CNS processes that provide important evolutionary advantages. One example is counteracting the dilation of cranial arteries to counteract dangerous vasoconstriction in the brain. Second, migraine may be an example of how pain has evolved to encourage organisms to avoid potentially harmful situations. Olfactory-induced migraines (migraines stimulated by strong smells) have been explained as an attempt to interrupt the entry of toxins into the brain via the olfactory nerve. Similarly, the low threshold for nausea and vomiting may be a mechanism to enhance elimination of ingested toxins in food.
have a lower prevalence of malignant neoplasms in the brain than controls, suggesting that migraines are protective against tumors. However, the mechanism responsible for this difference is unknown.
A large dietary intake of tyramine (or a dietary intake of tyramine while taking MAO inhibitors) can cause the tyramine pressor response, which is defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure of 30 mmHg or more. The displacement of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from neuronal storage vesicles by acute tyramine ingestion is thought to cause the vasoconstriction and increased heart rate and blood pressure of the pressor response. In severe cases, adrenergic crisis can occur. Although the mechanism is unclear, tyramine ingestion also triggers migraines in sensitive individuals. Vasodilation, dopamine, and circulatory factors are all implicated in migraine. Double-blind trials suggest that the effects of tyramine on migraines may be adrenergic.
are over-represented among those with inadequate natural monoamine oxidase, resulting in similar problems individuals taking MAO inhibitors. Many migraine triggers are high in tyramine.
There is significant evidence that a link exists between migraine with aura and the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO), a hole between the upper chambers (the atria) of the heart. It is estimated that 20-25% of the general population in the United States has a PFO. Medical research studies have shown that
are twice as likely as the general population to have a PFO, that over 50% of sufferers of migraine with aura have a PFO, that patients with a PFO are 5.1 times more likely to suffer from migraines and 3.2 times more likely to have migraines with aura than the general population, and that patients with migraine with aura are much more likely to have a large opening than the general PFO population. There is however some controversy, as some have shown a link, while others have failed to demonstrate a link.
Hallucinatory palinopsia, which is a dysfunction of visual memory, is caused by posterior visual pathway cortical lesions and seizures, most commonly in the non-dominant parietal lobe. Focal hyperactivity causes persistent activation of a visual cortex-hippocampal neuronal circuit which encodes an object or scene that is already in visual memory. "All of the hallucinatory palinopsia symptoms occur concomitantly in a patient with one lesion, which supports current evidence that objects, features, and scenes are all units of visual memory, perhaps at different levels of processing. This alludes to neuroanatomical integration in visual memory creation and storage." Studying the excitability alterations associated with palinopsia in
could provide insight on mechanisms of encoding visual memory.
Migraine is influenced on a polygenetic level (controlled by multiple genes). Therefore, researchers have theorized that migraine is a tradeoff and that it exists as a spectrum of susceptibility, with the majority of the population falling in the "heterozygous" zone between the two extremes of experiencing no headache and experiencing frequent, incapacitating headache. While it is not known for certain how or whether mild forms of the disorder would enhance survival, there is evidence of enhanced visual sensitivity in family members of
. Additionally, this compromise theory may explain the higher prevalence among women, especially pregnant women and women of reproductive age (25-40). The avoidance of threatening environments is historically more important to the reproductive success of women. The compromise between genetic harms and benefits is commonly seen in other disorders, such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia.
Copyright © 2017