Synonyms for miguelites or Related words with miguelites
Examples of "miguelites"
were driven out of Lisbon but returned and attacked the city in force, unsuccessfully. Miguel was finally defeated at the Battle of Asseiceira, on 16 May 1834, and capitulated a few days later with the Concession of Evoramonte.
The Concession of Evoramonte, also known as the Convention of Evoramonte, was a document signed on 26 May 1834, in Evoramonte, in Alentejo, between the Constitutionalists and the
, that ended the period of civil war (1828–1834) in the Kingdom of Portugal.
In the period of instability after the end of the Portuguese Civil War, several guerrillas happened between pro-governmental and anti-governmental local groups and between local groups and government forces, both by forces of the defeated
who kept the guerrillas and between different factions of Portuguese liberals. Among these were included:
In July 1833, having been transported with half his army to the Algarve by Admiral Charles Napier, he was victorious at the Battle of Almada which caused the
to abandon Lisbon, and with the Duke of Saldanha was in charge of the concluding campaign against Miguel's forces, and dealt them their final defeat at the Battle of Asseiceira.
At 3 a.m. the Dom Pedro forces moved out of camp, with the light division under Schwalbach in the centre, Brito's division on the right, and the officers' division, the artillery, the 3rd battalion of the Portuguese 18th Regiment and the French and the British contingents on the left, under Hodges. Dom Pedro himself remained some distance in the rear with a reserve. Hodges' forces were ordered to turn the Miguelite right, and succeeded - the sugar-loaf hill was abandoned and the Portuguese battalion was able to ascend it unopposed. However the French contingent was caught in the plain by the Miguelite cavalry and suffered heavy casualties, Major Checar being killed. The cavalry then attempted to charge the British, who had taken position behind a wall, but were driven back. Meanwhile, Brito's division had been ordered to take the Miguelite left, but despite repeated orders did not advance. The
, supported by guerrillas, re-took the hill, and Hodges requested reinforcements from Vila Flor, but these were held back by Dom Pedro for a considerable time. Nevertheless, when they came up they regained the hill from the
in a bayonet charge while Hodges attacked the enemy line from the left. Having suffered heavy casualties the
withdrew, leaving the field to Pedro's army. Vila Flor wished to follow up the victory and pursue the enemy, but Pedro countermanded this and the army returned to Porto on the afternoon of the 24th.
The Douro Wine Company continued to function until 1833 (though it was briefly revived from 1843 to 1853). By the mid-19th century, the tight restriction on the Port wine trade and (in particular) its monopoly on brandy was creating contempt among the Portuguese themselves. In 1852, the Douro region was seized by
loyal to the former King of Portugal, Dom Miguel. During the 18-month siege, the
blew up the brandy storage depot of the Douro Wine Company. With the warehouses of several Port shippers nearby, the fires quickly spread with an estimated 27,000 pipes (between 12,825,000 and 12,960,000 litres; over 3.4 million US gallons) of boiling hot Port wine flooding the streets and flowing into the Douro river.
In August, Silva Pereira sailed to Madeira as part of a contingent sent to strengthen the forces of the governor, José Travassos Valdez, who was holding out for the Queen, but Madeira was almost immediately captured by Miguel's forces and Silva Pereira joined Travassos Valdez in the evacuation of the Queen's supporters to England. He then served in Dom Pedro's forces in the recapture of the Azores and the Portuguese Civil War of 1832–34 in which the
The Battle of Praia Bay was fought on August 11, 1829, between Portuguese loyalists and a Miguelite fleet. The
attempted to disembark troops on Terceira island but were defeated by the loyalist troops who controlled a dozen small forts and artillery batteries along five kilometers of the coast. The defeat of the absolutists in this battle was decisive for the affirmation and posterior victory of the liberal ideas in Portugal.
With the fleet Napier then transported the Liberal army to the Algarve to open a second front in the south of the country. On his return voyage he destroyed the much larger Miguelite fleet in the Battle of Cape St Vincent on 5 July 1833. These two strokes enabled the Liberals to capture Lisbon, which the
abandoned, though Napier's squadron was now ravaged by cholera.
In 1807, while Jean-Andoche Junot led the first Napoleonic invasion in the north of Portugal, the Algarve was occupied by Spanish troops under Manuel Godoy. Beginning in 1808, and after subsequent battles in various towns and villages, the region was the first to drive out the Spanish occupiers. During the portuguese civil war, several battles took place in the region, specially the battle of Cape St. Vicente and the battle of Sant’Ana, between liberals and
. Remexido was the guerrilla algarvian leader that stand with the miguelite absolutists for years, until he was executed in Faro (1838).
In June 1833, the Liberals, still encircled at Porto, sent to the Algarve a force commanded by the Duke of Terceira supported by a naval squadron commanded by Charles Napier, using the alias 'Carlos de Ponza'. The Duke of Terceira landed at Faro and marched north through the Alentejo to capture Lisbon on July 24. Meanwhile, Napier's squadron encountered the absolutists' fleet near Cape Saint Vincent ("Cabo São Vicente") and decisively defeated it at the fourth Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The Liberals were able to occupy Lisbon, where Pedro moved from Porto and repulsed a Miguelite siege. A stalemate of nine months ensued. Towards the end of 1833, Maria da Glória was proclaimed queen, and Dom Pedro was made regent. His first act was to confiscate the property of all who had served under Dom Miguel. He also suppressed all religious houses and confiscated their property, an act that suspended friendly relations with Rome for nearly eight years, until mid-1841. The absolutists controlled the rural areas, where they were supported by the aristocracy, and by a peasantry that was galvanized by the Church. The Liberals occupied Portugal's major cities, Lisbon and Porto, where they commanded a sizable following among the middle classes. Operations against the
began again in earnest in early 1834. Meanwhile, the Liberal army had suffered a sound defeat at Alcácer do Sal, which proved that, despite the Duke of Terceira's recent march from Faro to Lisbon, the south was still loyal to the
From 1828 to 1834, occurred the Liberal Wars, a civil conflict that opposed the
(Absolutists) led by King Michael I to the Liberals led by his brother Peter (ex-Peter I of Brazil and ex-Peter IV of Portugal, defending the rights of his daughter, the Queen Mary II). The Portuguese Army divided itself by the two sides, although most of its units aligned on the side of Michael. The Miguelite forces were occasionally referred as the "Royalist Army". The Liberals raised the so-called "Liberator Army", made up mainly of newly raised units, but also incorporating some units of the regular Army that passed to their side. Both the Miguelite and the Liberal armies were referred as the "Rebel Army" by their respective opponents. The war ended formally on 26 May 1834, with the capitulation of Michael I in the Concession of Evoramonte.
partisans continued, however, a guerrilla warfare in several regions of the country until around 1838. The Article 9 of the Concession of Evoramonte established that all regiments and corps loyal to Michael should peacefully disband themselves. This meant in practice the dismantling of the "old" Portuguese Army, as most of its centuries-old regiments were disbanded. The victorious Liberals regime then raised a "new" Portuguese Army built essentially from the Liberator Army. The Militias and "Ordenanças" were also expressly extinguished, thus ending the traditional Portuguese military territorial organization originated in the 16th century. This extinction was mainly related with political reasons, as those organizations were considered traditionalists and far aligned with the
. To serve as second line troops, partially replacing the previous organizations, the Liberal regime raised the new National Guard. The National Guard was however not part of the Army, being instead subordinated to the civil administrative authorities. Despite the new regime initially given it a high importance, the National Guard turned out to show herself inefficient, undisciplined and highly politicized, being involved in a number of conspiracies and coups, eventually losing the confidence of the authorities and be disbanded in 1847.
After the Napoleonic War, the British ruled Portugal in the name of the absent king in Brazil, with Beresford as de facto Regent, until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 when they were driven out and the king was forced to return as a constitutional monarch. Over the next 25 years the fledgling Portuguese democracy experienced several military upheavals, especially the Liberal Wars fought between the brothers Dom Pedro, ex-Emperor of Brazil and the absolutist usurper Dom Miguel. To assert the cause of the rightful Queen, his daughter Maria da Glória, Pedro sailed from Terceira in the Azores with an expeditionary force consisting of 60 vessels, 7500 men including the Count of Vila Flor, Alexandre Herculano, Almeida Garrett, Joaquim António de Aguiar, José Travassos Valdez and a volunteer British contingent under the command of Colonels George Lloyd Hodges and Charles Shaw and effected a landing at Mindelo on the shores north of Porto. On 9 July Porto was taken by the liberal forces, and after an inconclusive result at the Battle of Ponte Ferreira on 22–23 July were besieged in the city by the
for nearly a year until, in July 1833, the Duke of Terceira (as Vila Flor had now been created) was able to land in the Algarve and defeat Miguel's forces at the battle of Almada. Meanwhile, Miguel's fleet was comprehensively defeated by Pedro's much smaller squadron, commanded by Charles Napier, in the fourth Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The
were driven out of Lisbon but returned and attacked the city in force, unsuccessfully. Miguel was finally defeated at the Battle of Asseiceira, 16 May 1834, and capitulated a few days later with the Concession of Evoramonte. He was exiled, though his supporters continued to plot for his return and cause trouble up to the 1850s.
Dom Pedro's expeditionary force from the Azores landed in Portugal on 7 July 1832 and on the 9th he occupied Porto as the city had been abandoned by the Miguelite army, which withdrew across the river Douro. Though this was a bold stroke, Pedro and his advisers had been under the impression that the peasantry and Miguel's army would at once declare allegiance to their rightful queen, and nothing of the sort happened. Though the Count of Vila Flor urged him to take the offensive, their forces delayed for several days in Porto resting and reorganizing. Meanwhile, the Miguelite army, commanded by General Cardoso and Count Montalegre, was reinforced and re-crossed the Douro some distance east of Porto. When this was known Dom Pedro sent Colonel Hodges with his British battalion on the 17th to reconnoitre the enemy's movements. Learning that they had occupied Penafiel with a strong force, he was reinforced by a volunteer regiment with orders to drive the
from Penafiel. Between the 19th and 21st this was accomplished, and the force then returned to Porto, but the
, who had been concentrating their full strength at Amarante, followed them. Before daybreak on the 22nd the bulk of Dom Pedro's army marched out from Porto along the Valongo road to give battle. The army was something of a multinational force, consisting of exiled opponents of Miguel's regime who had rallied to Pedro in the Azores (one battalion consisted entirely of officers), Portuguese volunteers loyal to the Queen, two British contingents commanded by Colonels Shaw and Hodges, and a French contingent commanded by Major Checar. Overall command was exercised by the Count of Vila Flor, with Colonels Brito and Schwalbach leading the Portuguese infantry and some artillery in the charge of Colonel Fonseca.
To assert the cause of the rightful Queen, his daughter Maria da Glória, Pedro sailed from Terceira in the Azores with an expeditionary force consisting of 60 vessels, 7500 men including António Severin de Noronha, Count of Vila Flor, Alexandre Herculano, Almeida Garrett, Joaquim António de Aguiar, José Travassos Valdez and a volunteer British contingent under the command of Colonels George Lloyd Hodges and Charles Shaw and effected a landing at Mindelo on the shores north of Porto. On 9 July Porto was taken by the liberal forces, and after an inconclusive result at the Battle of Ponte Ferreira on 22–23 July were besieged in the city by the
for nearly a year until, in July 1833, the Duke of Terceira (as Vila Flor had now been created) was able to land in the Algarve and defeat Miguel's forces at the battle of Almada.
During the 19th century, a serious clash between liberals and
, caused an exodus of people from the Algarvian inlands to the coastal cities. José Joaquim Sousa Reis, the Remexido, fought in the inlands and attacked the coastal cities, bringing the urban population into turmoil. The turmoil of the Algarve intensified in the years between 1834 and 1838, when the Algarve saw battles on a level it had never seen before. On November 26, 1836, Miguel I of Portugal named Remexido "Governor of the Kingdom of the Algarve" and "Acting Commander in Chief of all the Royalist Troops, Regular and Irregular Armies, and the Operations in the South". Remexido, however, was shot in Faro on August 2, 1838.
Meanwhile, in Brazil, relations between Pedro and Brazil's agricultural magnates had become strained. In April 1831, Pedro abdicated in Brazil in favor of his son, Pedro II, and sailed for Britain. He organized a military expedition there and then went to Terceira island in the Azores, which was in the hands of the Liberals, to set up a government in exile. The government of Miguel blockaded the island, but the blockading squadron was attacked by a French squadron during the run-up to the Battle of the Tagus, where several Miguelist ships were captured. In July 1832, with the backing of Liberals in Spain and England, an expedition led by Dom Pedro landed near Porto, which the
abandoned and where, after military activities including the Battle of Ponte Ferreira, Pedro and his associates were besieged by Miguelite forces for nearly a year. To protect British interests, a naval squadron under Commander William Glascock in HMS "Orestes" was stationed in the Douro, where it came under fire from both sides.
Shaw sold his business interests to travel on the Continent in 1830. In 1831 he joined Dom Pedro, former Emperor of Brazil, who was in London raising a force to restore his daughter Queen Maria to the throne of Portugal, which had been usurped by his brother Dom Miguel (the Portuguese Liberal Wars). Under the Foreign Enlistment Act of 1819 it was illegal to recruit for foreign armies on British soil, but operating from the London slums of Seven Dials and Soho, keeping one step ahead of police raids, Shaw and the other ‘Liberators’ hired several hundred ‘labourers for Brazil’. They formed a battalion of marines for Dom Pedro’s British-manned fleet, and Shaw was given command of the Light Company with a captain’s commission. In December 1831 they sailed to the Azores, which was Pedro’s base, and after training there the ‘Liberating Army of Portugal’ landed on the mainland near Porto on 5 July 1832. Shaw with his Light Company were among the first to land and Shaw claimed to have personally fired the first shot of the campaign in a brush with a Miguelite vedette. The force occupied Porto the same afternoon but were soon closely besieged by the
Napier’s command was essentially a mere squadron of six ships: three frigates, a corvette, a brig and a schooner, mounting a total of 176 guns. (He had some small steamers under his command which he hoped to use as tugs, but they abandoned him while the two forces were becalmed on the 4th of July: thus the subsequent battle was perhaps the last engagement of consequence between two fleets of sailing warships.) On 5 July the wind eventually got up and at 4.00 p.m. he attacked the Miguelite force of 3 ships of the line, a frigate, a xebec, 3 corvettes and 2 brigs, mounting altogether 372 guns. Knowing he could not long sustain a cannonade from such a superior opponent, Napier closed against enemy fire and boarded, so that the battle was decided in hand-to-hand fighting. In the event the Liberal forces captured all three ships of the line, a frigate and a corvette, whose crews agreed to fight from now on for Maria II; another ship came over the next day; the remnant of the Miguelite force fled to Lisbon or Madeira. Napier’s losses were about 30 killed (including the captain of "Rainha de Portugal" and two other captains) and about 60 wounded (including Charles Elers Napier), as against somewhere between 200 and 300 of the enemy, including the Miguelite commander, Admiral Manuel António Marreiros. On 6 July, receiving news of the victory, Dom Pedro named Napier as Viscount Cape St Vincent in the peerage of Portugal. Immediately afterwards his fleet was ravaged by cholera (which was raging on mainland Portugal), with appalling loss of life, but he was able to bring it safe into Lisbon, which the Miguelistas had precipitately abandoned after being defeated by Terceira’s army advancing from the south at the Battle of Almada. Napier visited Rear-Admiral Sir William Parker of the British navy who was in the vicinity of the Tagus, and was received according to his Portuguese rank as an Admiral. Though he was subsequently struck off the Navy List at the insistence of the French, he was restored to his rank in the Royal Navy within two years and the Battle, largely won by British officers and crews fighting for Maria II, was viewed in England as bringing honour to the British navy. The sea victory, making possible the capture of Lisbon from the
, was the single most important event contributing to Miguel's eventual defeat and overthrow in 1834.
The army raised by the Liberals to fight the
came to be known as the "Liberator Army" ("Exército Libertador"). It started to be raised from the military units stationed in the Azores (the first portion of the Portuguese territory under Liberal control), including the elite 5th "Caçadores" Battalion, that had been deployed to garnish the Fortress of São João Baptista in Terceira island. In August 1829, these forces were able to win the Battle of Praia da Vitória, an attempt of the Miguelite Navy to disembark troops and retake Terceira island. The initial Liberal forces in Azores were soon joined by Liberals evaded from the Miguelite army, by exiled Liberal volunteers and by foreign volunteers and mercenaries (mainly French, English, Belgians, Polish, Irish and Scottish). When the Liberal forces landed at Mindelo (near Oporto) in July 1832 - initiating the campaign in Mainland Portugal - they included more than 7000 men, most of them being foreigners. By July 1833, the Liberator Army included the Imperial Staff, the inspections generals of the Cavalry, Engineers and Artillery branches, the governments of arms of the Douro Province and of the fortresses of Oporto, the staffs of the six Portuguese brigades, the civil departments of the Army (pay-office, health, military administration, general audit, catering, transports and permanent court-martial), one cavalry regiment, seven line infantry regiments, four battalions of "caçadores", the Artillery Staff, one artillery battalion, the Academic Artillerymen Volunteers Corps, the Artillerymen Conductors Company, the Corps of the Royal Police Guard of Oporto, the Royal Corps of Engineers, the Queens Own Volunteers Regiment, the National Volunteers (one national corps on horse, five national mobile battalions, two national fix battalions, four provisional battalions and one public employees battalion), the Royal Arsenal of the Army, the Ouro Train, the Oporto Veterans (two companies), the Military General Depot, the Staff of the Expeditionary Division to Algarve, the Staff of the Azores Division, the staffs of the two foreign brigades, the Queens Own Lancers Regiment (British), the Navy's Regiment (British), the Queen's Own Grenadiers Regiment (Irish), the Scottish Fusiliers Battalion (British), the British Volunteers Battalion (British), and the 1st and 2nd Queen's own light infantry regiments (mainly French and Belgians).
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