Synonyms for montanists or Related words with montanists
Examples of "montanists"
Later in life, Tertullian joined the
, a heretical sect that appealed to his rigorism.
Jon Paulien describes "the
regarded as heresy , early charismatics who believed that every Christian was
Later in life, Tertullian is thought by most to have joined the
, a heretical sect that appealed to his rigorism.
It was considered tainted because the heretical sect of the
relied on it and doubts were raised over its Jewishness and authorship.
In middle life (about 207), he was attracted to the "New Prophecy" of Montanism, and seems to have split from the mainstream church. In the time of Augustine, a group of "Tertullianists" still had a basilica in Carthage which, within that same period, passed to the orthodox Church. It is unclear whether the name was merely another for the
or that this means Tertullian later split with the
and founded his own group.
In the 700s, the
were told by Emperor Leo III to leave Montanism and join orthodox Christianity. They refused, locked themselves in their places of worship, and set them on fire.
A sect called "Montanist" existed in the 8th century; the Emperor Leo III ordered the conversion and baptism of its members. These
refused, locked themselves in their houses of worship, set the buildings on fire and perished.
A tendency to mysticism in the text can be more clearly seen in a passage concerning "multicoloured cords" for women to put around their breasts to enable them to sing in the "language of the angels". Some say this is an early example of speaking in tongues, though it is not prevalent amongst the Therapeutae. The assertion has been made that the "ecstatic speech" of the
(a later Christian sect), was another example of "tongues". This has led several scholars to suggest that the
may have edited parts of the Testament of Job, adding sections such as these.
The first signs of Christian Mysticism in Africa followed the teachings of Montanus in the late 2nd century. Followers of Montanus, called
, induced ecstatic experiences out of which they would prophesy. Usually the prophecies were spoken in an unknown language.
He takes rank among the opponents of Montanism with the "Anonymous" of Eusebius, with Miltiades and with Apollinaris. Eusebius says his work constituted "an abundant and excellent refutation of Montanism". St. Jerome qualified it as "a lengthy and remarkable volume". It did not therefore pass unnoticed, and roused some feeling among the
since Tertullian felt it necessary to reply to it.
After his six books "peri ekstaseos", in which he apologized for the ecstasies into which the Montanist prophetesses fell before prophesying, Tertullian composed a seventh especially to refute Apollonius; he wrote it also in Greek for the use of the Asiatic
The Ascitans (or Ascitae, from the Greek word for a wine-skin), also known as Ascodrogites, were a peculiar sect of 2nd century Christians (
), who produced the practice of dancing round burst wine-skins at their assemblies, saying that they were those new bottles filled with new wine, whereof Jesus makes mention, according to the New American Standard Bible translation, Matthew 9:17:
Because much of what is known about Montanism comes from anti-Montanist sources, it is difficult to know what they actually believed and how those beliefs differed from the Christian mainstream of the time. One source reports that
claimed their revelation direct from the Holy Spirit could supersede the authority of Jesus or Paul or anyone else. The New Prophecy was also a diverse movement, and what
believed varied by location and time. Montanism was particularly influenced by Johannine literature, especially the Gospel of John and the Apocalypse of John (also known as the Book of Revelation). In John's Gospel, Jesus promised to send the Paraclete or Holy Spirit, from which
believed their prophets derived inspiration. In the Apocalypse, John was taken by an angel to the top of a mountain where he sees the New Jerusalem descend to earth. Montanus identified this mountain as being located in Phrygia near Pepuza. Followers of the New Prophecy called themselves "spiritales" ("spiritual people") in contrast to their opponents whom they termed "psychici" ("carnal, natural people").
Sabellianism was doctrine adhered to by a sect of the
are the same sect that Tertullian himself later converted to. Cyprian wrote of them "How, when God the Father is not known-nay, is even blasphemed-can they who among the heretics are said to be baptized in the name of Christ only, be judged to have obtained the remission of sins?" In 225AD Hippolytus spoke of them saying "Some of them assent to the heresy of the Noetians, affirming the Father Himself is the Son." Victorinus had this to say of them "Some had doubts about the baptism of those who appeared to recognize the same Father with the Son with us, yet who received the new prophets."
A letter of Jerome to Marcella, written in 385, refutes the claims of
that had been troubling her. A group of "Tertullianists" may have continued at Carthage. The anonymous author of "Praedestinatus" records that a preacher came to Rome in 388 where he made many converts and obtained the use of a church for his congregation on the grounds that the martyrs to whom it was dedicated had been
. He was obliged to flee after the victory of Theodosius I. In his own time, Augustine records that the Tertullianist group had dwindled to almost nothing and, finally, was reconciled to the church and handed over its basilica. It is not certain whether these Tertullianists were in all respects "Montanist" or not. In the 6th century, on the orders of the emperor Justinian, John of Ephesus led an expedition to Pepuza to destroy the Montanist shrine there, which was based on the tombs of Montanus, Priscilla and Maximilla.
The early Church largely succeeded in excluding women from this office. Despite this, some Christian groups like the
did appoint women as bishops. Latin inscriptions from Italy and Dalmatia certainly suggest their presence there as bishops in the 5th and 6th centuries. As a result of sparse epigraphical evidence, it is arguable whether women exercised the role of bishop in other areas and Christian groups.
He was thoroughly acquainted with the Christian history of Ephesus and the doings of the Phrygian
. The unknown author of "Praedestinatus" says he was a Bishop of Ephesus. However, the lack of support from other Christian writers makes this testimony doubtful. He undertook the defense of the Church against Montanus, and followed in the footsteps of Zoticus of Comanus, Julian of Apamaea, Sotas of Anchialus, and Apollinaris of Hierapolis.
After an apparently successful attempt to enforce the baptism of all Jews and
in the empire (722), Leo issued a series of edicts against the worship of images (726–729). A letter by the patriarch Germanus written before 726 to two Iconoclast bishops says that "now whole towns and multitudes of people are in considerable agitation over this matter" but we have very little evidence as to the growth of the debate.
But the arguments which he refutes are doubtless those of Epigonus and Cleomenes. There is little reason for thinking that Praxeas was a heresiarch, and less for identifying him with Noetus, or one of his disciples. He was very likely merely an adversary of the
who used some quasi-Monarchian expressions when at Carthage, but afterwards revised them when he saw they might be misunderstood.
Baptist successionism (or Baptist perpetuity) is one of several theories on the origin and continuation of Baptist churches. The tenet of the theory is that there has been an unbroken chain of churches since the days of John the Baptist, who baptized Christ, which have held beliefs similar (although not always the same) to those of current Baptists. Ancient anti-paedobaptist groups, such as the
, Paulicians, Cathari, Waldenses, Albigenses, and Anabaptists, have been among those viewed by Baptist successionists as the predecessors of modern-day Baptists.
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