Synonyms for neferti or Related words with neferti
Examples of "neferti"
Goedicke, Hans. The Protocol of Neferyt: The Prophecy of
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1977. Print, pg. 14.
The Prophecies of
is set in the fictional court of King Snefru (c.2575-2551), who ruled Egypt during the Fourth Dynasty. The sage
is summoned to the court so that he can entertain the King with fine speeches. He is asked to speak of the future rather than the past, the sage prophesies the downfall of the Egyptian nation by civil war; Leading to the eventual atonement of the nation through the rise of a great king. According to
this king, “Ameny”, will redeem the chaos, banish enemies, and set all right.
The story is comparable in style, tone, and subject matter to prophetic texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, such as the "Prophecy of
Parkinson, R. B. "The Words of
." The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems, 1940-1640 BC. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. N. pag. Print, pg 132.
Amenemhat I, who is theorized to be “Ameny” in “The Prophecies of
”, was the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty. He “inherited territorial unification, but faced a formidable political task. Kingship had become discredited and locally independent power had become strong. Internal reorganization around a strong central government was the task” (Wilson 275). The history of the Twelfth Dynasty leads scholars to believe that “The Prophecy of
” was written as political propaganda, in order to show Amenemhat I’s claim to kingship.
In Middle Kingdom texts, connecting themes include a pessimistic outlook, descriptions of social and religious change, and great disorder throughout the land, taking the form of a syntactic "then-now" verse formula. Although these texts are usually described as laments, "
" digresses from this model, providing a positive solution to a problematic world. Although it survives only in later copies from the Eighteenth dynasty onward, Parkinson asserts that, due to obvious political content, "
" was originally written during or shortly after the reign of Amenemhat I. Simpson calls it "...a blatant political pamphlet designed to support the new regime" of the Twelfth dynasty founded by Amenemhat, who usurped the throne from the Mentuhotep line of the Eleventh dynasty. In the narrative discourse, Sneferu (r. 2613–2589 BC) of the Fourth dynasty summons to court the sage and lector priest
entertains the king with prophecies that the land will enter into a chaotic age, alluding to the First Intermediate Period, only to be restored to its former glory by a righteous king— Ameny—whom the ancient Egyptian would readily recognize as Amenemhat I. A similar model of a tumultuous world transformed into a golden age by a savior king was adopted for the "Lamb" and "Potter", although for their audiences living under Roman domination, the savior was yet to come.
Since "pAthen", "pBerlin 3023" and "The prophecy of
" use the same manner of speaking and quaint phrases, equipped with numerous allusions to the wonders of Papyrus Westcar, Lepper and Lichtheim hold that Dedi, Ubaoner and Djadjaemankh must have been known to Egyptian authors for a long time.
Amenemhet I was not of royal lineage, and the composition of some literary works (the "Prophecy of
", the "Instructions of Amenemhat") and, in architecture, the reversion to the pyramid-style complexes of the 6th dynasty rulers are often considered to have been attempts at legitimizing his rule. Amenemhat I moved the capital from Thebes to Itjtawy and was buried in el-Lisht.
Since its founding in 2002, Kritika Kultura has published works of internationally noted writers and scholars such as E. San Juan Jr., Peter Horn, Bienvenido Lumbera ,
Tadiar , Doreen Fernandez , Harry Aveling , Suchen Christine Lim, Danton Remoto , Oscar Campomanes , and many others.
The Middle Kingdom genre of "prophetic texts", also known as "laments", "discourses", "dialogues", and "apocalyptic literature", include such works as the "Admonitions of Ipuwer", "Prophecy of
", and "Dispute between a man and his Ba". This genre had no known precedent in the Old Kingdom and no known original compositions were produced in the New Kingdom. However, works like "Prophecy of
" were frequently copied during the Ramesside Period of the New Kingdom, when this Middle Kingdom genre was canonized but discontinued. Egyptian prophetic literature underwent a revival during the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty and Roman period of Egypt with works such as the "Demotic Chronicle", "Oracle of the Lamb", "Oracle of the Potter", and two prophetic texts that focus on Nectanebo II (r. 360–343 BC) as a protagonist. Along with "teaching" texts, these reflective discourses (key word "mdt") are grouped with the wisdom literature category of the ancient Near East.
The Walls-of-the-Ruler are mentioned in the "Tale of Sinuhe" and in the so-called "Prophecy of
". No remains have been found to date, but some think that the city of Sile (Tjaru) was part of it. New Kingdom depictions show forts which had a secured supply of water and were surrounded by crocodile-infested ditches or canals which were spanned by bridges.
There is not one interpretation of the literary work that is widely agreed upon. Rather, there are numerous supported theories based on the interpretations of respected scholars. These interpretations range from simplistic explanations to in depth critical analyses. The most widely accepted interpretation of “The Prophecy of
” revolves around the theory that it was produced as propagandistic literature for the newly established Twelfth Dynasty under the rule of King Amenemhat I. This was an early interpretation and numerous others are now considered.
Modern Egyptologists such as Verena Lepper and Miriam Lichtheim deny this view and argue that Sethe and Erman may have just failed to see the profundity of such novels. They hold that at one side Sneferu is depicted as generous and kind, while on the other side he shows an accostable character when he addresses a subaltern, namely Djadjaemankh, with “my brother”. Both go even further and describe Sneferu as being bawdy when he tells Djadjaemankh how the female rowers shall be dressed and look like. Lepper and Liechtheim evaluate the story of Djadjaemankh as some sort of satire, in which a pharaoh is depicted as a fatuous fool, who is easily pleased with superficial entertainment and unable to solve his problem with a little rowing girl on his own. Furthermore the author of Djadjaemankh's tale places the main actor intellectually higher than the pharaoh and criticizes the pharaoh with this. Additionally the story of Djadjaemankh shows an interesting writing element: a speech in a speech. Sneferu repeats what he said to the stroke maiden, when he explains his problem to Djadjaemankh. The "Westcar Papyrus" is the first preserved Egyptian document in which a speech in a speech occurs. Liechtheim and Lepper also point to multiple similar but somewhat later ancient Egyptian writings in which magicians perform very similar magic tricks or make prophecies to a king. Their stories are obviously inspired by the tale of Dedi. Descriptive examples are the papyri "pAthen" and "The prophecy of
". In the
-novel king Sneferu is also depicted as accostable and here, too, the king addresses a subaltern with "my brother". And again the stories of "pAthen" and the
-novel both report about a bored pharaoh seeking for distraction. Furthermore the novels show how popular the theme of prophesying was since the Old Kingdom - just like in the story of the "Westcar Papyrus." Since "pAthen" and "The prophecy of
" show the same manner of speaking and equal picking up of quaint phrases as the "Westcar Papyrus" does, Lepper and Liechtheim hold that Djadjaemankh must have been known to Egyptian authors for a surprisingly long time.
Egyptologists such as Donald B. Redford believe that the name and the glorifying of Baufra and Djedefhor are both based on a misunderstanding which came up at the beginning of the New Kingdom, when literary masterpieces such as “Khufu and the magicians” and “The prophecy of
” were composed and the protagonists were intended with alleged historical roles. The Egyptians must have thought that really all sons and grandsons of Khufu had ruled after this king, since all kings up to Shepseskaf were actually sons, grandsons or great grandsons of Khufu. This line of throne followers were erroneously thought to have included Baufra and Djedefor, too.
The Prophecy of
is one of the few surviving literary texts from ancient Egypt. The story is set in the Old Kingdom, under the reign of King Snefru. However, the text should be attributed to an individual named Neferyt, who most likely composed it at the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty. The nature of the literary text is argued upon. There are a number of different theories stating that the literature is a historical romance in pseudo-prophetic form, political literature, religious motivation as well as a literary text created to change and improve the situation in Egypt during the Twelfth Dynasty.
A further descriptive example appears in "The prophecy of
". Like in pWestcar, a subaltern is addressed by a king with "my brother" and the king himself is depicted as being accostable and simple-minded. Furthermore, both novels talk about the same king: pharaoh Sneferu. The Papyrus "pAthen" contains the phrase: "...for these are the wise who can move waters and make a river flow at their mere will and want...", which clearly refers to the wonder that the magicians Djadjaemankh and Dedi had performed in pWestcar.
In addition to White and Clifford, Donna Haraway, Fredric Jameson, Teresa de Lauretis, Angela Davis, and Stephen Heath joined the program, while professors in other disciplines taught "HistCon" courses, supervised HistCon graduate students, and participated in new graduate student admissions. Among those most active at this time were political theorists John Schaar, J. Peter Euben, and Robert Meister, as well as philosopher David Hoy. Other notable faculty who have taught in the program: Herbert Marcuse, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Victor Burgin, Kobena Mercer, Isaac Julien, Karen Barad, and
Golenishchev, the son of a well-to-do merchant, was educated at the Saint Petersburg University. In 1884–85 he organized and financed excavations in Wadi Hammamat, followed by the research at Tell el-Maskhuta in 1888–89. In the course of the following two decades he travelled to Egypt more than sixty times and brought back an enormous collection of more than 6,000 ancient Egyptian antiquities, including such priceless relics as the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, the Story of Wenamun, and various Fayum portraits. He also published the so-called Hermitage papyri, including the Prophecy of
, now stored in the Hermitage Museum.
Modern Egyptologists like Verena Lepper and Miriam Lichtheim deny this view and they argue that Sethe and Erman may have just failed to see the profundity of such novels. They point to multiple similar but somewhat later ancient Egyptian writings in which magicians perform very similar magic tricks and make prophecies to a king. According to Lepper and Lichtheim, their stories are obviously inspired by the tale of Dedi. Descriptive examples are the papyri "pAthen" and "The prophecy of
". These novels show how popular the theme of prophesying already was during the Old Kingdom - just like in the story of the "Westcar Papyrus." And they both talk about subalterns with magical powers similar to those of Dedi's. The Papyrus "pBerlin 3023" contains the novel "The Eloquent Peasant", in which the following phrase appears: “See, these are artists who create the existing anew, who even replace a severed head”, which can be interpreted as an allusion to the "Westcar Papyrus." "pBerlin 3023" contains another reference which strengthens the idea that many ancient Egyptian novels were influenced by "Westcar Papyrus": column 232 contains the phrase "sleeping until dawn", which appears nearly word-by-word in the "Westcar Papyrus." Since "pAthen", "pBerlin 3023" and "The prophecy of
" show the same manner of speaking and equal picking up quaint phrases, Lepper and Lichtheim hold that Dedi (and the other wise men from same papyrus) must have been known to Egyptian authors for a long time.
It was previously thought that the "Admonitions of Ipuwer" presents an objective portrait of Egypt in the First Intermediate Period. In more recent times, it was found that the "Admonitions", along with the "Complaints of Khakheperresenb", are most likely works of royal propaganda, both inspired by the earlier "Prophecy of
": the three compositions have in common the theme of a nation that has been plunged into chaos and disarray and the need for an intransigent king who would defeat chaos and restore "maat". Toby Wilkinson suggested that the "Admonitions" and "Khakheperresenb" may thus have been composed during the reign of Senusret III, a pharaoh well known for his use of propaganda. In any case, the "Admonitions" is not a reliable account of early Egyptian history, because of the long time interval between its original composition and the writing of the Leiden Papyrus.
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