Synonyms for neonatally or Related words with neonatally
Examples of "neonatally"
adult skilled reaching deficit of
dopamine-depleted rats. Behavioural Brain
The leukocyte subpopulations involved in the MLR were first characterized by using cells from
thymectomized and bursectomized chickens. No MLR occurred when the Responder cells came from thymectomized animals, whereas bursectomized chicken leukocytes reacted in culture demonstrating that T-cells were the major cell type in Responder cell populations.
The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is a small cluster of cells located in the preoptic area of hypothalamus of the brain that is abundant in nuclear hormone receptors in a sexually dimorphic manner, strongly implicated, in rat models, as being
imprinted and subsequently controlling sex-typical physiology and behaviors. This nucleus or cluster of cells is typically of bigger size in females than males, contrary to the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) that is bigger in males.
Penile cancer development can be detected in the carcinoma "in situ" (CIS) cancerous precursor stage and at the more advanced invasive squamous cell carcinoma stage. Childhood or adolescent circumcision is associated with a reduced risk of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in particular. There is an association between adult circumcision and an increased risk of invasive penile cancer; this is believed to be from men being circumcised as a treatment for penile cancer or a condition that is a precursor to cancer rather than a consequence of circumcision itself. Penile cancer has been observed to be nearly eliminated in populations of males circumcised
A 1994 study of the entire population of New South Wales (Australia) found 20 patients. Of these, 5 (25%) had died at or before 30 months of age. Of the survivors, 1 (5%) was severely disabled and the remainder had either suffered mild disability or were making normal progress in school. A 2006 Dutch study followed 155 cases and found that 27 individuals (17%) had died at an early age. Of the survivors, 24 (19%) suffered from some degree of disability, of which most were mild. All the 18 patients diagnosed
were alive at the time of the follow-up.
The function of HHIP is not well known but has been shown to be tightly associated with lung function. Knocking out HHIP in mice is
lethal due to defective branching in the lung. The heterozygous knockout of HHIP has been shown to contribute to more severe emphysema induced by cigarette smoke compared to wild type mice. Furthermore, increased spontaneous emphysema and oxidative stress levels have been found in the lungs of HHIP heterozygous mice. Both the expression level and enhancer activity of HHIP is reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lungs, suggesting a protective role of HHIP in COPD pathogenesis.
Coumestrol and other phytoestrogens have been shown to have an effect on sexual behavior in rats by antagonizing the action of estrogen within the brain; male rats that nursed from females with coumestrol in their diets were both less likely to mount a female rat and less likely to ejaculate, despite producing normal levels of testosterone. Exposure produced similar decreases of sexual behavior in female rats, as a result of the disruption of estrogen dependent gene expression in the brain. Effects were seen in three areas of the hypothalamus, the ventromedial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the medial preoptic area, all of which play a role in sexual behavior and sexual activity. Female rats that were exposed to coumestrol
did not adopt the lordosis position as much as those that were not exposed to coumestrol.
The Phoenix et al. study sought to discover whether gonadal hormones given during the prenatal period had organizing effects on guinea pigs’ reproductive behavior It was found that when female controls, gonadectomized (removal of gonads) females, hermaphrodites, and castrated males were injected prenatally with testosterone proprionate, the mean number of mounts increased. This increase in male-typical reproductive behavior shows that prenatal androgens have a masculinizing effect. Moreover, the organizing effects of hormones can have permanent effects. Phoenix et al. found that females injected with testosterone propionate while pregnant, instead of
, did not have any effect on lordosis. This demonstrates that when testosterone is given postnatally in females, there may not be lasting effects as compared to prenatally administered testosterone. The data from this study supports the organizational hypothesis that states when androgens are given prenatally there is an organizing effect on sexual behavior, permanently altering normal female mating behavior as adults.
Although the house mouse ("Mus musculus") is the primary reservoir host for LCMV, it is also often found in the wood mouse ("Apodemus sylvaticus") and the yellow-necked mouse ("Apodemus flavicollis"). Hamster populations can act as reservoir hosts. Other rodents including guinea pigs, rats and chinchillas can be infected but do not appear to maintain the virus. LCMV has been shown to cause illness in New World primates such as macaques, marmosets and tamarins. Infections have also been reported in rabbits, dogs and pigs. After experimental inoculation, the incubation period in adult mice is 5 to 6 days. Congenitally or
infected mice and hamsters do not become symptomatic for several months or longer.
LCMV infections are focal Estimates of its prevalence in wild mouse populations range from 0% to 60%, with an average prevalence of 9%. The incidence of LCMV in pet rodents is unknown, yet very few human cases have been associated with exposure to pets. In the transplant-associated cases linked to a pet hamster in 2005, two other hamsters and a guinea pig at the pet shop, and approximately 4% of the hamsters at the distributor, were also infected. Morbidity and mortality rates vary with the species of animal and its age at infection, as well as the strain of the virus and route of exposure.
and congenitally infected mice remain asymptomatic for many months, but the onset of glomerulonephritis reduces overall life expectancy. The morbidity rate in naturally infected post-neonatal mice is unknown; however, subclinical disease may be the most common form, as few natural outbreaks have been reported. In hamsters, approximately half of all congenitally infected animals clear the virus when they are approximately three months old and remain healthy; the remaining animals develop chronic disease. Hamsters infected as adults usually remain asymptomatic. Callitrichid hepatitis is reported to be highly fatal in naturally infected marmosets and tamarins in zoos. Since 1980, 12 outbreaks with 57 deaths have been reported in the U.S. In experimentally infected rhesusmacaques, three of four animals became fatally ill when inoculation was by the intravenous route. In contrast, inoculation by the intragastric route usually led to asymptomatic infections, with occasional disease and few deaths.
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