Synonyms for neurotheology or Related words with neurotheology
Examples of "neurotheology"
His book Principles of
gives a basic understanding on the research done so far on
In contrast to
, the psychology of religion studies only psychological rather than neural states.
Islamic neuroethics and
hold a sympathetic attitude towards the mentally ill, as exemplified in Sura 4:5 of the Qur'an:
, also known as "biotheology" or "spiritual neuroscience", is the study of correlations of neural phenomena with subjective experiences of spirituality and hypotheses to explain these phenomena. Proponents of
claim that there is a neurological and evolutionary basis for subjective experiences traditionally categorized as spiritual or religious.
Neurophysiological origins: Religious experiences may have neurophysiological origins. These are studied in the field of
, and the cognitive science of religion, and include near-death experience and the "Koren helmet" Causes may be:
say there is a neurological and evolutionary basis for subjective experiences traditionally categorized as spiritual or religious. The field has formed the basis of several popular science books, but has received criticism from psychologists.
" is a neologism that describes the scientific study of the neural correlates of religious or spiritual beliefs, experiences and practices. Other researchers prefer to use terms like "spiritual neuroscience" or "neuroscience of religion". Researchers in the field attempt to explain the neurological basis for religious experiences, such as:
Aldous Huxley used the term "
" for the first time in the utopian novel "Island". The discipline studies the cognitive neuroscience of religious experience and spirituality. The term is also sometimes used in a less scientific context or a philosophical context. Some of these uses, according to the mainstream scientific community, qualify as pseudoscience. Huxley used it mainly in a philosophical context.
He has been a prominent researcher in the field of nuclear medical brain imaging and
. In particular, his research has focused on the development of neurotransmitter tracers for the evaluation of religiosity as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders including clinical depression, head injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.
However, it has also been argued "that
should be conceived and practiced within a theological framework." Furthermore, it has been suggested that creating a separate category for this kind of research is moot since conventional Behavioural and Social Neurosciences disciplines can handle any empirical investigation of this nature.
, also known as spiritual neuroscience, attempts to explain religious experience and behaviour in neuroscientific terms. It is the study of correlations of neural phenomena with subjective experiences of spirituality and hypotheses to explain these phenomena. This contrasts with the psychology of religion which studies mental, rather than neural, states.
Convergent disciplines of neuroanthropology, ethnomusicology, electroencephalography (EEG),
and cognitive neuroscience, amongst others, are conducting research into the trance induction of altered states of consciousness resulting from neuron entrainment with the driving of sensory modalities, for example polyharmonics, multiphonics, and percussive polyrhythms through the channel of the auditory and kinesthetic modality.
is a controversial field which tries to find neural correlates and mechanisms of religious experience. Some researchers have suggested that the human brain has innate mechanisms for such experiences and that living without using them for their evolved purposes may be a cause of imbalance. Studies have reported conflicted results on correlating happiness with religious belief and it is difficult to find unbiased meta-analyses.
The use of the term
in published scientific work is currently uncommon. A search on the citation indexing service provided by Institute for Scientific Information returns five articles. Three of these are published in the journal "Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science", while two are published in "American Behavioral Scientist". Work on the neural basis of spirituality has, however, occurred sporadically throughout the 20th century.
In the early 1990s, he began to research the intersection between the brain and religious and spiritual experiences. In this work, also sometimes referred to as “
”, Newberg described the possible neurophysiological mechanisms associated with religious and spiritual experiences. His initial research included the use of functional brain imaging to study Buddhist meditators and Franciscan nuns in prayer. This work was eventually published in three books, "The Mystical Mind", "Why God Won’t Go Away", and "Why We Believe What We Believe".
" is a neologism that describes the scientific study of the neural correlates of religious or spiritual beliefs and practices. Other researchers have rejected the term, preferring to use terms like "spiritual neuroscience" or "neuroscience of religion". Researchers in the field attempt to explain the neurological basis for religious experiences, such as: the perception that time, fear or self-consciousness have dissolved; spiritual awe; oneness with the universe; ecstatic trance; sudden enlightenment; and altered states of consciousness.
It is also a common antiscientific point to state that "verbal" (say, literary and non-mathematical) models are poor representations of reality. If it is clear that a particular statistical or psychological study about romantic love or religious ecstasy (see
) captures only a tiny fraction of such human experiences, literary accounts and simplified verbal models also cannot adequately convey their full complexity. Both verbal and mathematical models are (partial) maps of reality, providing different points of view, but inherently incomplete descriptions of the territory of human and universe existence (see map–territory relation).
In an attempt to focus and clarify what was a growing interest in this field, in 1994 educator and businessman Laurence O. McKinney published the first book on the subject, titled "
: Virtual Religion in the 21st Century", written for a popular audience but also promoted in the theological journal "Zygon". According to McKinney,
sources the basis of religious inquiry in relatively recent developmental neurophysiology. According to McKinney's theory, pre-frontal development, in humans, creates an illusion of chronological time as a fundamental part of normal adult cognition past the age of three. The inability of the adult brain to retrieve earlier images experienced by an infantile brain creates questions such as "where did I come from" and "where does it all go", which McKinney suggests led to the creation of various religious explanations. The experience of death as a peaceful regression into timelessness as the brain dies won praise from readers as varied as author Arthur C. Clarke, eminent theologian Harvey Cox, and the Dalai Lama and sparked a new interest in the field.
The God Helmet is an experimental apparatus originally called the Koren helmet after its inventor Stanley Koren. It was developed by Koren and neuroscientist Michael Persinger to study creativity, religious experience and the effects of subtle stimulation of the temporal lobes. Reports by participants of a "sensed presence" while wearing the God helmet brought public attention and resulted in several TV documentaries. The device has been used in Persinger's research in the field of
, the study of the neural correlations of religion and spirituality. The apparatus, placed on the head of an experimental subject, generates very weak magnetic fields, that Persinger refers to as "complex." Like other neural stimulation with low-intensity magnetic fields, these fields are approximately as strong as those generated by a land line telephone handset or an ordinary hair dryer, but far weaker than that of an ordinary refrigerator magnet and approximately a million times weaker than transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Michael A. Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a cognitive neuroscience researcher and university professor with hundreds of peer-reviewed publications. He has worked at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, since 1971. He is primarily notable for his experimental work in the field of
, work which has been increasingly criticized in recent years. In 2016, Persinger was controversially removed as the instructor of a first year psychology course. The provost at Laurentian said they objected to his asking students to sign a "statement of understanding" that vulgar language might be used in the class. The Laurentian University Faculty Association filed a grievance against the school for violating Persinger's academic freedom. Current and former students also protested the decision.
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