Synonyms for nihali or Related words with nihali


Examples of "nihali"
Sati Nihali Devi Mata Mandir is one of the holiest temples dedicated to Nihali Mata, located in this village near the bus stand.
A narration highlighting Christian influences in the Nihali community
The vowels in Nihali are i, e, a, o, u plus [:]. The vowels [e] and [o] will have lower varieties at the morpheme final positions. Nasalization is rare in Nihali. If words with these vowels are spoke with Nasalization the words have a high chance of being a borrowed word.There are 33 consonants in the Nihali speech. Unaspirated stops in consonants are more frequently used than aspirated stops.
Kuiper's assumptions stem from the fact that several lower-class groups in India have had secret languages. These secret languages were used as a means to conceal communication from oppressive upper class groups. Today, several of the Korku speakers refuse to acknowledge the Nihali language. Korku natives describe the emergence of the Nihali into their community as a civil disturbance.
Small speaker populations of two language isolates (Nihali and Burushaski), which are not known to be rooted in any other language families, also exist in North India.
Nihali, also known as Nahali or erroneously as Kalto, is a threatened language isolate spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) with approximately 2,000 people (in 1991) out of an ethnic population of 5,000. The Nihali tribal area is just south of the Tapti River, around the village of Tembi in Nimar district of Central Provinces during British Raj, now in Madhya Pradesh. Speakers of the Nihali language are also present in several villages of the Buldhana district in Maharashtra such as Jamod, Sonbardi, Kuvardev, Chalthana, Ambavara, Wasali, and Cicari. There are dialectal differences between the Kuvardev-Chalthana and the Jamod-Sonbardi varieties.
Further possibilities include nearby language isolates such as Burushaski, Kusunda and Nihali as well as the extinct Sumerian civilization with which there was trade contact.
The Nihali language is a language isolate spoken in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Affiliations have been suggested to the Munda languages but they have yet to be demonstrated.
Residents of Buldhana are bilingual in Korku language, Hindi or Marathi language. Nihali language, a language isolate of India, is spoken by some 2,000 people (1991) in the Buldana district of Maharashtra.
The Nihali live similarly to the Kalto; this, combined with the fact that Kalto has often been called Nahali, has led to confusion of the two languages in the literature.
India has more than 2,000 ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major language families (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, and Sino-Tibetan) and a language isolate (Nihali).
Franciscus Kuiper was the first to suggest that it may be unrelated to any other Indian language, with the non-Korku, non-Dravidian core vocabulary being the remnant of an earlier population in India. However, he did not rule out that it may be a Munda language like Korku. The Endangered Languages Project surmises a relationship with Kusunda, Ainu and the Andamanese languages as part of Joseph Greenberg's Indo-Pacific hypothesis. The Nihali have long lived in a symbiotic but socially inferior relationship with the Korku people, and are bilingual in Korku, with Nihali frequently spoken to prevent the Korku from understanding them. The original Nihali were poor laborers who served as agricultural workers for communities other than their own. Kuiper suggested that the differences might also be argot, such as a thieves' cant. Norman Zide described the situation this way:
Before the recent discovery of active Kusunda speakers, there were several attempts to link the language to an established language family. B. K. Rana (2002) maintains that Kusunda is a Tibeto-Burman language as traditionally classified. Others have linked it to Munda (see Watters 2005); Yeniseian (Gurov 1989); Burushaski and Caucasian (Reinhard and Toba 1970; this would be a variant of Gurov's proposal if Sino-Caucasian is accepted); the Nihali isolate in central India (Fleming 1996, Whitehouse 1997); and again with Nihali, as part of the Indo-Pacific hypothesis (Whitehouse et al. 2004).
India has more than two thousand , and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir).
Kalto or Nahali is an Indo-Aryan language of India. Kalto is the endonym; the exonym "Nahal" or "Nihal" is disparaging. Because of the name "Nahali", the language has often been confused with Nihali, an apparent language isolate spoken by a neighboring people with a similar lifestyle.
Korkus are also closely associated with the Nihali people, many of whom have traditionally lived in special quarters of Korku villages. Korku is spoken by half a million people, mainly in four districts of southern Madhya Pradesh (Khandwa, Harda, Betul, Hoshangabad) and three districts of northern Maharashtra (Rajura and Korpana tahsils of Chandrapur district, Manikgarh pahad area near Gadchandur in Chandrapur district) (Amravati, Buldana, Akola). Korku is spoken in a declining number of villages and is gradually being replaced by Hindi.
Ainu is sometimes added to this group though it is not, strictly speaking, a language of Siberia. It barely survives in southern Sakhalin where it was the main native language. It was also spoken in the Kuril Islands and on Hokkaidō, where a strong interest in its revival is taking place. Attempts have been made to relate it to many other language families, including Altaic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Nihali, and the putative Indo-Pacific stock.
Minority groups not falling within either large group mostly speak languages belonging to the Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families, and mostly live around Ladakh and Northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh. The Andamanese (Sentinel, Onge, Jarawa, Great Andamanese) live on some of the Andaman Islands and speak a language isolate, as do the Kusunda in central Nepal, the Vedda in Sri Lanka, and the Nihali of central India, who number about 5000 people. The people of the Hunza valley in Pakistan are another distinct population. They speak Burushaski, a language isolate.
The language has a very large number of words adopted from neighboring languages, with 60–70% apparently taken from Korku (25% of vocabulary and much of its morphology), from Dravidian languages, and from Marathi, but much of its core vocabulary cannot be related to these or other languages, such as the numerals and words for "blood" and "egg". Scholars state that less than 25% of the language's original vocabulary is used today. There are no longer any surviving monolingual speakers of the language. Those that are well-versed in modern Nihali are likely to speak varieties of Hindi, Marathi, or Korku as well.
Watters (2005) published a mid-sized grammatical description of the language, plus vocabulary, which shows that Kusunda is indeed a language isolate, not just genealogically but also lexically, grammatically, and phonologically distinct from its neighbors. It appears that Kusunda is a remnant of the languages spoken in northern India before the influx of Tibeto-Burman- and Indo-Iranian-speaking peoples, however it is not classified as a Munda or a Dravidian language. See also Burushaski, Nihali and (potentially) the substrate of the Vedda language for other Indian languages which don't fall into the main categories of Indo-European, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Australasian.