Synonyms for nominalism or Related words with nominalism
Examples of "nominalism"
The term '
' stems from the Latin "nomen", "name." For example, John Stuart Mill once wrote, that "there is nothing general except names". In philosophy of law,
finds its application in what is called constitutional
Nominalists often argue for their view by claiming that
can account for all the relevant phenomena, and therefore—by Occam's razor or some sort of principle of simplicity—
is preferable, since it posits fewer entities. Whether
can truly account for all of the relevant phenomena is debated.
redirects the thesis of
to the highest level of self actualism whereby all individuals are equal and collectively creates community actualism where everyone is without hierarchy.
is thus categorical but without hierarchy and leads us in directing thought towards the general idea of the community rather than the individual (Porter, 2006).
Nominalists assert that only individuals or particulars exist and deny that universals are real (i.e. that they exist as entities or beings). The term "
" comes from the Latin "nomen" ("name"), since the nominalist philosopher agrees that we predicate the same property of multiple entities but argues that the entities only share a name, not a real quality, in common. There are various forms of
(which is sometimes also referred to as "predicate
" or as "terminus"); three major forms are resemblance
, conceptualism, and trope
has been endorsed or defended by many, including William of Ockham, Peter Abelard, D. C. Williams (1953), David Lewis (1983), and arguably H. H. Price (1953) and W. V. O. Quine (1961).
Armstrong further rejects nominalisms that deny that properties and relations exist in reality because he suggests that these sorts of nominalisms, specifically referring to what he calls class
, and resemblance
, postulate primitives of either class membership or resemblance.
In "Alice in Wonderland", the problem of
is presented in an anecdotal example:
and conceptualism are the main forms of anti-realism about universals.
As a category of late medieval thought, the concept of '
' has been increasingly queried. Traditionally, the fourteenth century has been regarded as the heyday of
, with figures such as John Buridan and William of Ockham viewed as founding figures. However, the concept of '
' as a movement (generally contrasted with 'realism'), first emerged only in the late fourteenth century, and only gradually became widespread during the fifteenth century. The notion of two distinct ways, a "via antiqua", associated with realism, and a "via moderna", associated with
, became widespread only in the later fifteenth century – a dispute which eventually dried up in the sixteenth century.
Among the specific features writers of
writers have found attractive for their practices are:
Haecceity thus enabled Scotus to find a middle ground in the debate over universals between
Heiko Oberman, "The Harvest of Medieval Theology: Gabriel Biel and Late Medieval
", Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001.
Aristotle famously rejected certain aspects of Plato's Theory of Forms, but he clearly rejected
is the view advanced in Wilfrid Sellars' paper "Empiricism and Philosophy of Mind" (EPM) that explains psychological concepts in terms of public language use. Sellars describes psychological
as the view that "“all awareness of sorts, resemblances, facts, etc., in short, all awareness…is a linguistic affair.”
argues that class membership forms the metaphysical backing for property relationships: two particular red balls share a property in that they are both members of classes corresponding to their properties—that of being red and being balls. A version of class
that sees some classes as "natural classes" is held by Anthony Quinton.
is primarily a position on the problem of universals, which dates back at least to Plato, and is opposed to realist philosophies, such as Platonic realism, which assert that universals do exist over and above particulars. However, the name "
" emerged from debates in medieval philosophy with Roscellinus.
Most discussions of literary
center on the late medieval period and early modern periods, when many of the epistemological foundations of Neoplatonic realism were challenged. The majority of such discussions of literary
have centered on the works of Geoffrey Chaucer, but also included Jean Molinet, the Pearl Poet, François Rabelais, John Skelton, Julian of Norwich, Chrétien de Troyes, the York and Townely Plays, Renaissance plays, Jonathan Swift, Miguel de Cervantes, and John Milton. A famous postmodern writer, Jose Luis Borges, took an inimical stand towards
in his short story, "Funes the Memorious."
In Quinton's 1957 paper, he sees his theory as a less extreme version of
than that of Willard van Orman Quine, Nelson Goodman and Stuart Hampshire.
Neal Stephenson's novel Anathem involves a long discussion of worldlines over dinner in the midst of a philosophical debate between Platonic realism and
In the second half of the fifteenth century, at Kraków, "via antiqua" became dominant.
retreated, and the old Scholasticism triumphed.
Aware that explicit thinking in terms of a divide between '
' and 'realism' only emerged in the fifteenth century, scholars have increasingly questioned whether a fourteenth-century school of
can really be said to have existed. While one might speak of family resemblances between Ockham, Buridan, Marsilius and others, there are also striking differences. More fundamentally, Robert Pasnau has questioned whether any kind of coherent body of thought that could be called '
' can be discerned in fourteenth century writing. This makes it difficult, it has been argued, to follow the twentieth century narrative which portrayed late scholastic philosophy as a dispute which emerged in the fourteenth century between the "via moderna",
, and the "via antiqua", realism, with the nominalist ideas of William of Ockham foreshadowing the eventual rejection of scholasticism in the seventeenth century.
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