Synonyms for nomothetic or Related words with nomothetic
Examples of "nomothetic"
literally means "proposition of the law" (Greek derivation) and is used in philosophy (see also
and idiographic), psychology, and law with differing meanings. In psychology,
measures are contrasted to ipsative or idiothetic measures, where
measures are measures that are observed on a relatively large sample and have a more general outlook while the idiographic approach is relating to a more singular case as is done in case studies.
The problem of whether to use
or idiographic approaches is most sharply felt in the social sciences, whose subject are unique individuals (idiographic perspective), but who have certain general properties or behave according to general rules (
In general humanities usage, "
" may be used in the sense of "able to lay down the law", "having the capacity to posit lasting sense" (from , from nomothetēs νομοθέτης "lawgiver", from νόμος "law" and the root "posit, place, lay down"), e.g., 'the
capability of the early mythmakers' or 'the
skill of Adam, given the power to name things.'
The term "idiothetic" is also used in personality psychology. Idiothetic psychology of personality suggests that personality description follows idiographic principles, while personality development centres around
In sociology, the
model tries to find independent variables that account for the variations in a given phenomenon (e.g. What is the relationship between timing/frequency of childbirth and education).
explanations are probabilistic and usually incomplete. The idiographic model focuses on a complete, in-depth understanding of a single case (e.g. Why do I not have any children).
refers to the use of generalization rather than specific properties in the context of a group as an entity.
explanation presents a generalized understanding of a given case, and is contrasted with ideographic explanation, which presents a full description of a given case.
approaches are most appropriate to the deductive approach to social research in as much as they include the more highly structured research methodologies which can be replicated and controlled, and which focuses on generating quantitative data with a view to explaining causal relationships.
In psychological theories of personality, the following could be categorized as
theories: Carl Jung's Psychological Types, Eysenck's three factor model, the Big Five personality traits, and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator.
In anthropology, idiographic describes the study of a group, seen as an entity, with specific properties that set it apart from other groups.
refers to the use of generalization rather than specific properties in the same context.
and idiographic are terms used by Kantian philosopher Wilhelm Windelband to describe two distinct approaches to knowledge, each one corresponding to a different intellectual tendency, and each one corresponding to a different branch of academe.
Explanations in social theories can be idiographic or
. An idiographic approach to an explanation is one where the scientists seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event, i.e. by trying to provide all possible explanations of a particular case.
explanations tend to be more general with scientists trying to identify a few causal factors that impact a wide class of conditions or events. For example, when dealing with the problem of how people choose a job, idiographic explanation would be to list all possible reasons why a given person (or group) chooses a given job, while
explanation would try to find factors that determine why job applicants in general choose a given job.
In psychology, idiographic describes the study of the individual, who is seen as a unique agent with a unique life history, with properties setting him/her apart from other individuals (see idiographic image). A common method to study these unique characteristics is an (auto)biography, i.e. a narrative that recounts the unique sequence of events that made the person who she is.
describes the study of classes or cohorts of individuals. Here the subject is seen as an exemplar of a population and their corresponding personality traits and behaviours. The terms idiographic and
were introduced to American psychology by Gordon Allport in 1937.
Personality also refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress. There is still no universal consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology. Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the
and the idiographic. "
psychology" seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. "Idiographic psychology" is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual.
propositions are law "stricto sensu". That is, a nomo thesis (legal position) is an invariable "fact of life" and is invariable and cannot be other than it is. Legal science is generally not considered nomothetical in late modernity though some scholars in antiquity and in the Middle Ages seemed to believe that law, or at least some laws, were
(see natural law). The field of "nomothetics" can also refer to the science of the creation of legal systems, as in jurisprudence and the ordered arrangement of law systemization in new and constructed ways.
In the field of clinical sciences, an idiographic image (from Greek ιδιος-γραφιχος: "ídios" + "graphikós", meaning ""to describe a peculiarity"") is the representation of a result which has been obtained thanks to a study or research method whose subject-matters are specific cases, i.e. a portrayal which avoids
Theodore Millon (1995) states that when spotting and diagnosing personality disorders, first we start with the
perspective and look for various general scientific laws; then when you believe you have a disorder, you switch your view to the idiographic perspective to focus on the specific individual and his or her unique traits.
In 1884, Kantian philosopher Wilhelm Windelband coined the terms
and idiographic to describe these two divergent approaches. He observed that most scientists employ some mix of both, but in differing proportions; he considered physics a perfect example of a
science, and history, an idiographic science. Moreover, he argued that each approach has its origin in one of the two "interests" of reason Kant had identified in the "Critique of Judgement"—one "generalizing", the other "specifying". (Winkelband's student Heinrich Rickert elaborated on this distinction in "The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science : A Logical Introduction to the Historical Sciences"; Boas's students Alfred Kroeber and Edward Sapir relied extensively on this work in defining their own approach to anthropology.)
approaches are quantitative, and idiographic approaches are qualitative, although the "Personal Questionnaire" developed by M.B. Shapiro, and its further developments (e.g. Discan scale) are both quantitative and idiographic. Personal cognition (D.A. Booth) is idiographic, qualitative and quantitative, using the individual's own narrative of action within situation to scale the ongoing biosocial cognitive processes in units of discrimination from norm (with M.T. Conner 1986, R.P.J. Freeman 1993 and O. Sharpe 2005).
Immanuel Kant distinguished between "Vernunft" and "Verstand", "reason" and "intellect". These two categories are equivalents of "the urgent need of" reason, and the "mere quest and desire for knowledge". Differentiating between reason and intellect, or the need to reason and the quest for knowledge, as Kant has done, according to Arendt "coincides with a distinction between two altogether different mental activities, thinking and knowing, and two altogether different concerns, meaning, in the first category, and cognition, in the second". These ideas were also developed by Kantian philosopher, Wilhelm Windelband, in his discussion of the approaches to knowledge named "
" and "idiographic".
In the history of geography, the quantitative revolution (QR) was one of the four major turning-points of modern geography – the other three being environmental determinism, regional geography and critical geography). The main claim for the quantitative revolution is that it led to a shift from a descriptive (idiographic) geography to an empirical law-making (
) geography. The quantitative revolution occurred during the 1950s and 1960s and marked a rapid change in the method behind geographical research, from regional geography into a spatial science.
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