Synonyms for nulliparous or Related words with nulliparous
Examples of "nulliparous"
" () woman (a "nullipara" or "para 0") has never given birth.
women (women who have never given birth) are somewhat more likely to have side effects, this is not a contraindication for IUD use. Overall, IUDs are safe and acceptable also in young
women. The same is likely the case for virgin women, unless there is a microperforate hymen that obstructs any insertion of the IUD.
Although circulating levels of estriol are very low outside of pregnancy, parous women have higher levels of estriol than do
Although previously not recommended for
women (women who have not had children), the IUD is now recommended for most women who are past menarche (their first period), including adolescents.
The only effectiveness trial of Lea's Shield was too small to determine method effectiveness. The actual pregnancy rate was 15% per year. Of the women in the trial, 85% were parous (had given birth). The study authors estimate that for
women (those who have never given birth) the pregnancy rate in typical use may be lower, around 5% per year.
Bisexual women are more likely to be
, overweight and obese, have higher smoking rates and alcohol drinking than heterosexual women, all risk factors for breast cancer. Bisexual men practicing receptive anal intercourse are at higher risk for anal cancer caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
Substantial pain with insertion that needs active management occurs in approximately 17% of
women and approximately 11% of parous women. In such cases, NSAID are evidenced to be effective. However, no prophylactic analgesic drug have been found to be effective for routine use for women undergoing IUD insertion.
"Contraceptive Technology" reports that the method failure rate of the Prentif cervical cap with spermicide is 9% per year for
women (women who have never given birth), and 26% per year for parous women. The actual pregnancy rates among Prentif users vary depending on the population being studied, with yearly rates of 11% to 32% being reported.
Wrangham proposed the cost-of-sexual-attraction hypothesis as a result of comparing the number of sexual cycles between conceptions that are experienced by both parous and
female chimpanzees, as well as parous western and eastern chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes verus" and "Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii"), and the size of the sexual swellings that came with these differences"." Through observing these groups in both species, he suggested that two factors are most important in determining how obviously a female displays the ovulatory stage in her cycle: the level of scramble competition that exists between the females of the group for resources such as food; and the difference in travelling costs for parous and
A woman who has never carried a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks is "
", and is called a "nullipara" or "para 0". A woman who has given birth once before is "primiparous", and is referred to as a "primipara" or "primip"; moreover, a woman who has given birth two or more times is "multiparous" and is called a "multip". Finally, "grand multipara" describes the condition of having given birth three or more times.
A study in 2013 showed that most women seeking late term abortion "fit at least one of five profiles: They were raising children alone, were depressed or using illicit substances, were in conflict with a male partner or experiencing domestic violence, had trouble deciding and then had access problems, or were young and
." The study data did not include woman who were having abortions "on grounds of fetal anomaly or life endangerment."
Zoe Fairbairns has also focused on the short story as a form. This began with her work as a collective contributor to "Tales I Tell My Mother" and "More Tales I Tell My Mother"; she published her own collection, "How Do You Pronounce
" (2004) and "Write Short Stories and Get Them Published" (2011). She has written pamphlets for CND, Shelter, and the feminist publishers Raw Nerve; a radio play ("The Belgian Nurse"), introductions to novels, interviews with authors including Fay Weldon and Jo Nesbo for "Books Magazine", and fiction reviews for newspapers.
For unknown reasons, females are more likely to be affected than males, in a ratio of about 2:1, although others report this ratio to be as high as 9:1. Females are more likely to request treatment for TMD, and their symptoms are less likely to resolve. Females with TMD are more likely to be
than females without TMD. It has also been reported that female caucasians are more likely to be affected by TMD, and at an earlier age, than female African Americans.
Several techniques are used to reduce the risk of tearing, but with little evidence for efficacy. Antenatal digital perineal massage is often advocated, and may reduce the risk of trauma only in
women. ‘Hands on’ techniques employed by midwives, in which the foetal head is guided through the vagina at a controlled rate have been widely advocated, but their efficacy is unclear. Waterbirth and labouring in water are popular for several reasons, and it has been suggested that by softening the perineum they might reduce the rate of tearing. However, this effect has never been clearly demonstrated.
Use of fertility medication may contribute to borderline ovarian tumor formation, but the link between the two is disputed and difficult to study. Fertility drugs may be associated with a higher risk of borderline tumors. Those who have been treated for infertility but remain
are at higher risk for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, those who are successfully treated for infertility and subsequently give birth are at no higher risk. This may be due to shedding of precancerous cells during pregnancy but the cause remains unclear. The risk factor may instead be infertility itself, not the treatment.
The active stage of labour (or "active phase of first stage" if the previous phase is termed "latent phase of first stage") has geographically differing definitions. In the US, the definition of active labour was changed from 3 to 4 cm, to 5 cm of cervical dilation for multiparous women, mothers who had given birth previously, and at 6 cm for
women, those who had not given birth before. This has been done in an effort to increase the rates of vaginal delivery.
Dysmenorrhea is estimated to affect approximately 25% of women. Reports of dysmenorrhea are greatest among individuals in their late teens and 20s, with reports usually declining with age. The prevalence in adolescent females has been reported to be 67.2% by one study and 90% by another. It has been stated that there is no significant difference in prevalence or incidence between races. Yet, a study of Hispanic adolescent females indicated a high prevalence and impact in this group. Another study indicated that dysmenorrhea was present in 36.4% of participants, and was significantly associated with lower age and lower parity. Childbearing is said to relieve dysmenorrhea, but this does not always occur. One study indicated that in
women with primary dysmenorrhea, the severity of menstrual pain decreased significantly after age 40. A questionnaire concluded that menstrual problems, including dysmenorrhea, were more common in females who had been sexually abused.
High-dosage NET has been used to suppress menstruation in women with severe intellectual disability who were incapable of handling their own menses. A study of 118
women treated with 5 mg/day NET for a period of 2 to 30 months found that the drug was effective in producing amenorrhea in 86% of the women, with breakthrough bleeding occurring in the remaining 14%. Side effects including weight gain, hirsutism, acne, headache, nausea, and vomiting all did not appear to increase in incidence and no "disturbing side effects" were noted in any of the women. Another study of 5 mg/day NET in 132 women also made no mention of androgenic side effects. These findings suggest little to no risk of androgenic side effects with NET at a dosage of 5 mg/day.
Tatum developed many different models of the copper IUD. He created the TCu220 C, which had copper collars as opposed to copper filament, which prevented metal loss and increased the lifespan of the device. Second-generation copper-T IUDs were also introduced in the 1970s. These devices had higher surface areas of copper, and for the first time consistently achieved effectiveness rates of greater than 99%. The last model Tatum developed was the TCu380A, the model that is most recommended today. In addition to T-shaped IUDs, there are also U-shaped IUDs (such as the Multiload) and 7-shaped Gravigard Copper 7 (with a mini version for
women introduced in the 1980s). More recently, a frameless IUD called Gynefix was introduced.
One scientific term for the state of pregnancy is "gravidity" (adjective ""gravid""), Latin for "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a "gravida". Similarly, the term "parity" (abbreviated as "para") is used for the number of times a female carries a pregnancy past 20 weeks of gestation. Twins and other multiple births are counted as one pregnancy and birth. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a "nulligravida." A woman who is (or has been only) pregnant for the first time is referred to as a "primigravida", and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a "multigravida" or as "multiparous." Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman would be described as "gravida 2, para 1" and upon live delivery as "gravida 2, para 2." In-progress pregnancies, abortions, miscarriages and/ or stillbirths account for parity values being less than the gravida number. In the case of twins, triplets, etc., gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as "
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