Synonyms for occasionalism or Related words with occasionalism
Examples of "occasionalism"
The explanation given by Arnold Geulincx and Nicholas Malebranche is that of
, where all mind–body interactions require the direct intervention of God.
Both the Ash'aris and Maturidis follow
, a philosophy which refutes the basis for causality, but also proves the existence and nature of the Islamic belief of the tawhid (oneness of God) through formal logic.
The cultural historian Peter Burke suggested using the term ‘
’ to stress the implication of the idea of performance that ‘[...] on different occasions or in different situations the same person behaves in different ways’.
A prominent version of parallelism is called
. Defended by Malebranche,
agrees that the mind and body are separated but does not agree with Descartes’s explanation of how the two interacted. For Malebranche, God intercedes if there was a need for the mind and body to interact. For example, if the body is injured, God is aware of the injury and makes the body feel pain. Likewise, if a person wants to move their hand, i.e. to grasp an object with their fingers, that want is made aware to God and then God makes the person’s hand move. In reality, the mind and body are not actually in contact with each other, it just seems that way because God is intervening.
can be viewed as parallelism with divine intervention so to speak, because if God did not mediate between the mind and body, there would be no interaction between the two.
Economic historian Joel Mokyr has argued that Islamic philosopher Al Ghazali (1058–1111) "was a key figure in the decline in Islamic science", as his works contributed to rising mysticism and
in the Islamic world.
itself was derived from the earlier school of thought of “volunteerism” emanating from Al-Ash'ari who held that every particle in the universe must be constantly recreated each instant by God’s direct intervention.
Malebranche was strongly influenced by Descartes but did not accept his philosophy uncritically. He is noted particularly for his view that we see all things in God and for his adoption of psycho-physical parallelism and '
' to deal with the problem of interaction between mind and body. However, his attribution of epistemological and explanatory primacy to God leads to difficulties.
David Hume supported and drew upon Malebranche's negative arguments to show that no genuine causal connections could be conceived between distinct mundane entities. However, when it came to finding a positive replacement for such causal connections, he turned inwards to the workings of the human mind, instead of turning upwards to God. With regard to this second half of Malebranche's
, Hume wrote:
"The Incoherence of the Philosophers" is famous for proposing and defending the Asharite theory of
. Al-Ghazali wrote that when fire and cotton are placed in contact, the cotton is burned directly by God rather than by the fire, a claim which he defended using logic.
is the view espoused by Nicholas Malebranche that asserts that all supposedly causal relations between physical events, or between physical and mental events, are not really causal at all. While body and mind are different substances, causes (whether mental or physical) are related to their effects by an act of God's intervention on each specific occasion.
Louis de La Forge (1632–1666) was a French philosopher who in his "Tractatus de mente humana" ("Traité de l'esprit de l'homme", 1664; in English, "Treatise on the Human Mind") expounded a doctrine of
. He was born in La Flèche and died in Saumur. He was a friend of Descartes, and one of the most able interpreters of Cartesianism.
He was also a defender of Cartesianism against
. He had known Louis de La Forge from early life, and had talked to him then on the underlying philosophical issues, and for this reason took him to be the founder of the occasionalist theory.
His 11th century book titled "The Incoherence of the Philosophers" marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. The encounter with skepticism led al-Ghazali to embrace a form of theological
, or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God.
In his thesis on Malebranche, Ginsberg mainly argued against Mario Novaro's criticisms of Malebranche's theory of
, claiming that Novaro "entirely ignored the main difference between Hume and Malebranche in regard to causality. Malebranche does not, in truth, deny a necessary connection between cause and effect."
In parallelism, mental events and physical events are perfectly coordinated by God; so that when a mental event such as Sally's decision to walk across the room occurs, simultaneously Sally's body heads across the room, in the absence of a direct cause-effect relation between mind and body. Mental and physical events are just perfectly coordinated by God, either in advance (as per Gottfried Leibniz's idea of pre-established harmony) or at the time (as in the
of Nicolas Malebranche).
One solution to the mind–body problem came from Cartesian Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715). Malebranche maintained that created substances of a different kind cannot interact with one another. In fact, he believed substances of the same kind could not interact either because no necessary causation could be perceived. He proposes then that it is God, an uncreated substance, who brings it about that each time one perceives a 'cause', one also perceives an 'effect'. Hence the doctrine is named
Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (; 6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian (not to be confused with the Congregation of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri) priest and rationalist philosopher. In his works, he sought to synthesize the thought of St. Augustine and Descartes, in order to demonstrate the active role of God in every aspect of the world. Malebranche is best known for his doctrines of Vision in God,
Interactionism is the theory in the philosophy of mind which holds that, matter and mind being distinct and independent, they exert causal effects on one another. As such, it is a type of dualism. It can be distinguished from competing dualist theories of epiphenomenalism (which admits causation, but views it as unidirectional rather than bidirectional), pre-established harmony, and
(which both deny causation, while seeking to explain the appearance of causation by other means).
A nonce word (also called an
) is a lexeme created for a single occasion to solve an immediate problem of communication. Some nonce words have a meaning and may become an established part of the language, while others are essentially meaningless and disposable and are useful for exactly that reason, for instance in child language testing. Examples of such words include "wug" (see Wug test) and "blicket".
Malebranche was well-known and celebrated in his own time, but has since become somewhat of an obscure figure in the history of western philosophy. His philosophy had a profound effect on it, however, through its influence upon Spinoza and Hume, whose problem of causation was influenced by Malebranche’s
. It’s possible that Malebranche also influenced George Berkeley, although he rejects any association with Malebranche beyond superficial similarities.
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