Synonyms for oligomenorrhea or Related words with oligomenorrhea
Examples of "oligomenorrhea"
" is the medical term for infrequent, often light menstrual periods (intervals exceeding 35 days).
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are also likely to suffer from
. PCOS is a condition in which excessive androgens (male sex hormones) are released by the ovaries. Women with PCOS show menstrual irregularities that range from
and amenorrhea, to very heavy, irregular periods. The condition affects about 6% of premenopausal women.
Hyperprolactinemic SAHA syndrome is a cutaneous condition characterized by lateral hairiness,
, and sometimes acne, seborrhea, FAGA I, and even galactorrhea.
can be a result of prolactinomas (adenomas of the anterior pituitary). It may be caused by thyrotoxicosis, hormonal changes in perimenopause, Prader–Willi syndrome, and Graves disease.
Eating disorders can result in
. Although menstrual disorders are most strongly associated with Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa may also result in
or amenorrhea. There is some controversy regarding the mechanism for the menstrual dysregulation, since amenorrhea may sometimes precede substantial weight loss in some anorexics. Some researchers hypothesize that some as-yet unrecognized neuroendocrine phenomenon may be involved; the menstrual irregularities may be related to the biological undergirding of the disorders, rather than a result of nutritional deficiencies.
Estrogen is also used in the therapy of vaginal atrophy, hypoestrogenism (as a result of hypogonadism, oophorectomy, or primary ovarian failure), amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and
. Estrogens can also be used to suppress lactation after child birth.
Focusing on the role of adipose tissue (fat) in fertility, Frisch discovered that low body fat (under 17%) could cause infertility, late menarche, and
. She also discovered that athletes were at lower risk of breast cancer.
Environment can have large impact on the HPG axis. One example is women with eating disorders suffer from
and secondary amenorrhea. Starvation from anorexia nervosa or bulimia causes the HPG axis to deactivate causing women's ovarian and uterine cycles to stop. Stress, physical exercise, and weight loss have been correlated with
and secondary amenorrhea. Similarly environmental factors can also affect men such as stress causing impotence. Prenatal exposure to alcohol can affect the hormones regulating fetal development resulting in foetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
Some Female infants with classic CAH have ambiguous genitalia due to exposure to high concentrations of androgens in utero. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of ambiguous genitalia in genotypically normal female infants (46XX). Less severely affected females may present with early pubarche. Young women may present with symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (
, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism).
Leydig cell hypoplasia does not occur in biological females as they do not have either Leydig cells or testicles. However, the cause of the condition in males, luteinizing hormone insensitivity, does affect females, and because LH plays a role in the female reproductive system, it can result in primary amenorrhea or
(absent or reduced menstruation), infertility due to anovulation, and ovarian cysts.
(or oligomenorrhoea) is infrequent (or, in occasional usage, very light) menstruation. More strictly, it is menstrual periods occurring at intervals of greater than 35 days, with only four to nine periods in a year. Menstrual periods should have been regularly established before the development of infrequent flow. The duration of such events may vary.
Emmenagogues (also spelled "emmenagogs") are herbs which stimulate blood flow in the pelvic area and uterus; some stimulate menstruation. Women use emmenagogues to stimulate menstrual flow when menstruation is absent for reasons other than pregnancy, such as hormonal disorders or conditions like
(infrequent or light menses).
Alternatively, a single menstruation period may be defined as irregular if it is shorter than 21 days or longer than 36 days. If they are regularly shorter than 21 days or longer than 36 (or 35) days, the condition is termed polymenorrhea or
lengths of varying degrees. In many circumstances, menstrual intervals are prolonged exceeding 35 days leading to
(cycle >35 – 180 days interval), or even longer, amenorrhea. In other cases, menstruation may be fairly regular (eumenorrhea), or more frequent (intervals < 21 days), or there may be a loss of menstrual pattern (menorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding).
Ovulation induction is a promising assisted reproductive technology for patients with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and
. It is also used in in vitro fertilization to make the follicles mature before egg retrieval. Usually, ovarian stimulation is used in conjunction with ovulation induction to stimulate the formation of multiple oocytes. Some sources include ovulation induction in the definition of "ovarian stimulation".
The majority of Leydig cell tumors are found in males, usually at 5–10 years of age or in middle adulthood (30–60 years). Children typically present with precocious puberty. Due to excess testosterone secreted by the tumour, one-third of female patients present with a recent history of progressive masculinization. Masculinization is preceded by anovulation,
, amenorrhea and "defeminization". Additional signs include acne and hirsutism, voice deepening, clitoromegaly, temporal hair recession, and an increase in musculature. Serum testosterone level is high.
Very little flow (less than 10 ml) is called "hypomenorrhea". Regular cycles with intervals of 21 days or fewer are "polymenorrhea"; frequent but irregular menstruation is known as "metrorrhagia". Sudden heavy flows or amounts greater than 80 ml are termed "menorrhagia". Heavy menstruation that occurs frequently and irregularly is "menometrorrhagia". The term for cycles with intervals exceeding 35 days is "
". Amenorrhea refers to more than three to six months without menses (while not being pregnant) during a woman's reproductive years.
The World Health Organization criteria for classification of anovulation include the determination of
(menstrual cycle >35 days) or amenorrea (menstrual cycle > 6 months) in combination with concentration of prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2). The patients are classified as WHO1 (15%) - hypo-gonadotropic, hypo-estrogenic, WHO2 (80%) - normo-gonadotropic, normo-estrogenic, and WHO3 (5%) - hyper-gonadotropic, hypo-estrogenic. The vast majority of anovulation patients belong to the WHO2 group and demonstrate very heterogeneous symptoms ranging from anovulation, obesity, biochemical or clinical hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance.
Most common initial symptoms of Sheehan's syndrome are agalactorrhea (absence of lactation) and/or difficulties with lactation. Many women also report amenorrhea or
after delivery. In some cases, a woman with Sheehan syndrome might be relatively asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is not made until years later, with features of hypopituitarism. Such features include secondary hypothyroidism with tiredness, intolerance to cold, constipation, weight gain, hair loss and slowed thinking, as well as a slowed heart rate and low blood pressure. Another such feature is secondary adrenal insufficiency, which, in the rather chronic case is similar to Addison's disease with symptoms including fatigue, weight loss, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels), anemia and hyponatremia (low sodium levels). Such a woman may, however, become acutely exacerbated when her body is stressed by, for example, a severe infection or surgery years after her delivery, a condition equivalent with an Addisonian crisis. The symptoms of adrenal crisis should be treated immediately and can be life-threatening Gonadotropin deficiency will often cause amenorrhea,
, hot flashes, or decreased libido. Growth hormone deficiency causes many vague symptoms including fatigue and decreased muscle mass.
Clinical studies were conducted under an Investigational New Drug Application; it was third drug for which an IND had been filed under the 1962 Kefauver Harris Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that had been passed in response to the thalidomide tragedy. It was approved for marketing in 1967 under the brand name Clomid. It was first used to treat cases of
but was expanded to include treatment of anovulation when women undergoing treatment had higher than expected rates of pregnancy.
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