Synonyms for oligozoospermia or Related words with oligozoospermia
Examples of "oligozoospermia"
The diagnosis of
requires a work-up via semen analysis (listed in Male infertility).
Terms oligospermia and
refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility. Often semen with a decreased sperm concentration may also show significant abnormalities in sperm morphology and motility (technically oligoasthenoteratozoospermia). There has been interest in replacing the descriptive terms used in semen analysis with more quantitative information.
Hypoprolactinemia is associated with ovarian dysfunction in women, and metabolic syndrome, anxiety symptoms, arteriogenic erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation,
(low concentration of sperm in semen), asthenospermia (reduced sperm motility), hypofunction of seminal vesicles, and hypoandrogenism in men. In one study, normal sperm characteristics were restored when prolactin levels were brought up to normal values in men with hypoprolactinemia.
Hypoprolactinemia, or serum prolactin deficiency, is associated with ovarian dysfunction in women, and arteriogenic erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation,
, asthenospermia, hypofunction of seminal vesicles and hypoandrogenism in men. In one study, normal sperm characteristics were restored when prolactin levels were raised to normal values in hypoprolactinemic men.
Y chromosome microdeletion "(YCM)" is a family of genetic disorders caused by missing gene(s) in the Y chromosome. Many men with YCM exhibit no symptoms and lead normal lives. However, YCM is also known to be present in a significant number of men with reduced fertility. Men with reduced sperm production (in up to 20% of men with reduced sperm count, some form of YCM has been detected) varies from
, significant lack of sperm, or azoospermia, complete lack of sperm.
The diagnosis of
is based on one low count in a semen analysis performed on two occasions. For many decades sperm concentrations of less than 20 million sperm/ml were considered low or oligospermic, recently, however, the WHO reassessed sperm criteria and established a lower reference point, less than 15 million sperm/ml, consistent with the 5th percentile for fertile men. Sperm concentrations fluctuate and oligospermia may be temporary or permanent.
FSH insensitivity presents itself in females as two clusters of symptoms: 1) hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or hypoestrogenism, resulting in a delayed, reduced, or fully absent puberty and associated sexual infantilism (if left untreated), reduced uterine volume, and osteoporosis; and 2) ovarian dysgenesis or failure, resulting in primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, and normal sized to slightly enlarged ovaries. Males on the other hand are significantly less affected, presenting merely with partial or complete infertility, reduced testicular volume, and
In order for spermatogenesis to occur in the testes, both FSH and the male hormone testosterone must be present. By inhibiting release of FSH, trestolone creates an endocrine environment in which conditions for spermatogenesis are not ideal. Manufacture of sperm is further impaired by the suppression of LH, which in turn drastically curtails the production of testosterone. Sufficient regular doses of trestolone cause severe
or azoospermia, and therefore infertility, in most male patients.
The symptoms of AES, in males, include heterosexual precocity (precocious puberty with phenotypically-inappropriate secondary sexual characteristics; i.e., a fully or mostly feminized appearance), severe prepubertal or peripubertal gynecomastia (development of breasts in males before or around puberty), high-pitched voice, sparse facial hair, hypogonadism (dysfunctional gonads),
(low sperm count), small testes, micropenis (an ususually small penis), advanced bone maturation, an earlier peak height velocity (an accelerated rate of growth in regards to height), and short final stature due to early epiphyseal closure. The incidence of gynecomastia appears to be 100%, with 20 of 30 male cases opting for mastectomy according to a review.
Often parents of children with a developmental disability want to know more about their child's conditions before choosing to have another child. These concerns can be addressed by analysis of the parents' and child's DNA. In cases where the child's developmental disability is not understood, the cause of it can potentially be determined using FISH and cytogenetic techniques. Examples of diseases that are diagnosed using FISH include Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, 22q13 deletion syndrome, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Cri-du-chat, Velocardiofacial syndrome, and Down syndrome. FISH on sperm cells is indicated for men with an abnormal somatic or meiotic karyotype as well as those with
, since approximately 50% of oligozoospermic men have an increased rate of sperm chromosome abnormalities. The analysis of chromosomes 21, X, and Y is enough to identify oligozoospermic individuals at risk.
About 10–15% of human couples are infertile, unable to conceive. In approximately in half of these cases, the underlying cause is related to the male. The underlying causative factors in the male infertility can be attributed to environmental toxins, systemic disorders such as, hypothalamic–pituitary disease, testicular cancers and germ-cell aplasia. Genetic factors including aneuploidies and single-gene mutations are also contributed to the male infertility. Patients suffering from nonobstructive azoospermia or
show microdeletions in the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities, each with the respective frequency of 9.7% and 13%. A large percentage of human male infertility is estimated to be caused by mutations in genes involved in primary or secondary spermatogenesis and sperm quality and function. Single-gene defects are the focus of most research carried out in this field.
Sperm count, or "sperm concentration" to avoid confusion with "total sperm count", measures the concentration of sperm in a man's ejaculate, distinguished from "total sperm count", which is the sperm count multiplied with volume. Over 15 million sperm per milliliter is considered normal, according to the WHO in 2010. Older definitions state 20 million. A lower sperm count is considered
. A vasectomy is considered successful if the sample is azoospermic (zero sperm of any kind found). Some define success as when rare/occasional non-motile sperm are observed (fewer than 100,000 per millilitre). Others advocate obtaining a second semen analysis to verify the counts are not increasing (as can happen with re-canalization) and others still may perform a repeat vasectomy for this situation.
Bonnet macaques raised by him at Primate Research Laboratory made it handy for Moudgal in carrying out researches on follicle stimulating hormone in the primates and he discovered that immuno-neutralization of circulating FSH decreases the semen count, leading to
or azoospermia, but did not adversely affect libido. He successfully replicated the experiments in rodents as well and suggested FSH as an immunocontraceptive protocol. However, the researches could not be furthered due to laws related to preparation of protein-based pharmaceuticals. Still, his studies widened the understanding of conditions such as follicular maturation, atresia, spermatogenesis, primate reproduction and lactational amenorrhea. The pioneering work carried out by him led to the Indian Council of Medical Research recognizing his laboratory at IISc as a Centre for Advanced Research in Reproductive Biology, which as since been upgraded as Department of Molecular Reproduction and Developmental Genetics (MRDG). He documented his researches by way of several articles and his work has been cited by a number of authors and researchers. Besides, he edited two books, "Gonadotropins and Gonadal Function" and "Perspectives In Primate Reproductive Biology" and contributed chapters to many texts edited by others. He presented a research paper, "Gonadotropins and Their Antibodies", at the Laurentian Hormone Research Conference (LHRC) held at Mont Tremblant, Canada in August 1973, thus becoming the first Indian scientist to present a paper at LHRC. He also guided over 30 doctoral and post-doctoral scholars in their studies and two of them, Addicam Jagannadha Rao and Appaji Rao, are emeritus professors of IISc. His niece, Mrinalini Rao, whom he mentored, is a distinguished scientist at the University of Illinois.
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