Synonyms for osteoblasts or Related words with osteoblasts
Examples of "osteoblasts"
Normally, almost all of the bone matrix, in the air breathing vertebrates, is mineralized by the
. Before the organic matrix is mineralized, it is called the osteoid.
buried in the matrix are called osteocytes. During bone formation, the surface layer of
consists of cuboidal cells, called "active
". When the bone-forming unit is not actively synthesizing bone, the surface
are flattened and are called "inactive
". Osteocytes remain alive and are connected by cell processes to a surface layer of
. Osteocytes have important functions in skeletal maintenance.
Osteochondroprogenitor can be found between MSCs and the terminally differentiated
and chondrocytes. Via different signalling molecules and combinations the osteochondroprogenitor will differentiate into either
Bone mineralization occurs in human body by cells called
Alkaline phosphatase inhibited 25% by vaccenic acid in
(from the Greek combining forms for "bone", ὀστέο-, "osteo-" and βλαστάνω, "blastanō" "germinate") are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone. However, in the process of bone formation,
function in groups of connected cells. Individual cells cannot make bone. A group of organized
together with the bone made by a unit of cells is usually called the osteon.
It is implicated in the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and is the predominant adhesin for adherence to
, a cell type present in large quantities within bone. Few "S. aureus" cells become internalised into
in the absence of the FnBP
are the major cellular component of bone.
arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells are found in large numbers in the periosteum, the thin connective tissue layer on the outside surface of bones, and in the endosteum.
The periosteum consists of dense irregular connective tissue. It is divided into an outer "fibrous layer" and inner "cambium layer" (or "osteogenic layer"). The fibrous layer contains fibroblasts, while the cambium layer contains progenitor cells that develop into
are responsible for increasing the width of a long bone and the overall size of the other bone types. After a bone fracture the progenitor cells develop into
and chondroblasts, which are essential to the healing process.
Osteoinduction involves the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate into
that then begin new bone formation. The most widely studied type of osteoinductive cell mediators are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). A bone graft material that is osteoconductive and osteoinductive will not only serve as a scaffold for currently existing
but will also trigger the formation of new
, theoretically promoting faster integration of the graft.
The bone cells include osteocytes,
, osteoclasts, osteogenic cells (stem cells), and lining cells.
Increasing alcohol consumption is linked with decreasing testosterone and serum estradiol levels, which in turn lead to the activation of RANK (a TNF receptor) protein that promote osteoclast formation. Oxidative stress results when ethanol induces NOX expression, resulting in ROS production in
which can untimately result in cell senescence. Direct effects of chronic alcoholism are apparent in
, osteoclasts and osteocytes. Ethanol suppresses the activity and differentiation of
Furthermore, a technetium bone scan will show increased activity (also due to increased
are bone cells that are responsible for the formation of new bone.
deposit a collagen matrix and release minerals that combine to make the bone mineral. Unlike the much larger osteoclasts,
are much smaller; they only have one nucleus.
also group to form new bone.
are important because they allow the bones to be made, remodeled, and repaired. The
come from the differentiation of osteogenic cells in the tissue that covers the outside of the bone, or the periosteum and the bone marrow. The osteoblast creates and repairs new bone by actually building around itself. First, the osteoblast puts up collagen fibers. These collagen fibers are used as a framework for the
' work. The osteoblast then deposits calcium phosphate which is hardened by hydroxide and bicarbonate ions. The brand new bone created by the osteoblast is called osteoid. Once the osteoblast is finished working it is actually trapped inside of the bone once it hardens. When the osteoblast becomes trapped, it becomes known as an osteocyte. Other
remain on the top of the new bone and are used to protect the underlying bone, these become known as lining cells.
The "lipid hypothesis of osteoporosis" postulates that lipids involved in causing heart disease also contribute to causing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease of bone marrow cells, or
, and an increase of fat cells, or adipocytes. The formation of
is reduced by oxidized lipids and in mice fed with a high fat diet. Observations from this model suggest that LDL oxidation products can cause osteoporosis through changing the developmental fate of bone cells leading to a reduced number of
and increased numbers of fat cells.
"Harmine was shown to promote differentiation of
(bone-forming cells), and chondrocytes (cells in the cartilage)."
5HT2B receptors also activate osteocytes, which build up bone However, serotonin also inhibits
, through 5-HT1B receptors.
Osteoclast differentiation is inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is produced by
and binds to RANKL thereby preventing interaction with RANK. It may be important to note that while osteoclasts are derived from the hematopoietic lineage,
are derived from mesenchymal stem cells.
Receptor expression is also observed at the surface of
, the cell progenitors involved in bone formation.
Numerous sAC splice variants are present in osteoclast and
, and mutation in the human sAC gene is associated with low spinal density. Calcification by
is intrinsically related with bicarbonate and calcium. Bone density experiments in mouse calvaria cultured indicates that HCO-sensing sAC is a physiological appropriate regulator of bone formation and/or reabsorption.
The "dental sac or follicle" gives rise to three important entities: cementoblasts,
, and fibroblasts. Cementoblasts form the cementum of a tooth.
give rise to the alveolar bone around the roots of teeth. Fibroblasts are involved developing the periodontal ligament which connect teeth to the alveolar bone through cementum.
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