Synonyms for paraphrenia or Related words with paraphrenia
Examples of "paraphrenia"
is not included in the DSM-5; psychiatrists often diagnose patients presenting with
as having atypical psychoses, delusional disorder, psychoses not otherwise specified, schizoaffective disorders, and persistent persecutory states of older adults. Recently, mental health professionals have also been classifying
as very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis.
can occur in both men and women, it is more common in women, even after the difference has been adjusted for life expectancies. The ratio of women with
to men with
is anywhere from 3:1 to 45:2
The term "
" was originally popularized by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum in 1863 to describe the tendency of certain psychiatric disorders to occur during certain transitional periods in life (describing
hebetica as the insanity of the adolescence and
senilis as the insanity of the elders.
is different from schizophrenia because, while both disorders result in delusions and hallucinations, individuals with schizophrenia exhibit changes and deterioration of personality whereas individuals with
maintain a well-preserved personality and affective response.
Studies suggest that the prevalence of
in the elderly population is around 2-4%.
Many patients who present with
have significant auditory or visual loss, are socially isolated with a lack of social contact, do not have a permanent home, are unmarried and without children, and have maladaptive personality traits. While these factors do not cause
, they do make individuals more likely to develop the disorder later in life.
While the diagnosis of
is not currently included in the DSM-IV or the ICD-10, many studies have recognized the condition as "a viable diagnostic entity that is distinct from schizophrenia, with organic factors playing a role in a significant portion of patients." As such,
is seen as being distinct from both schizophrenia and progressive dementia in old age. Ravindran (1999) developed a list of criteria for the diagnosis of
, which agrees with much of the research done up to the time it was published.
Individuals who develop
have a life expectancy similar to the normal population. Recovery from the psychotic symptoms seems to be rare, and in most cases
results in in-patient status for the remainder of the life of the patient. Patients experience a slow deterioration of cognitive functions and the disorder can lead to dementia in some cases, but this development is no greater than the normal population.
is a mental disorder characterized by an organized system of paranoid delusions with or without hallucinations (the positive symptoms of schizophrenia) without deterioration of intellect or personality (its negative symptom).
The main symptoms of
are paranoid delusions and hallucinations. The delusions often involve the individual being the subject of persecution, although they can also be erotic, hypochondriacal, or grandiose in nature. The majority of hallucinations associated with
are auditory, with 75% of patients reporting such an experience; however, visual, tactile, and olfactory hallucinations have also been reported. The paranoia and hallucinations can combine in the form of “threatening or accusatory voices coming from neighbouring houses [and] are frequently reported by the patients as disturbing and undeserved". Patients also present with a lack of symptoms commonly found in other mental disorders similar to
. There is no significant deterioration of intellect, personality, or habits and patients often remain clean and mostly self-sufficient. Patients also remain oriented well in time and space.
It is suggested that individuals who develop
later in life have premorbid personalities, and can be described as “quarrelsome, religious, suspicious or sensitive, unsociable and cold-hearted.” Many patients were also described as being solitary, eccentric, isolated and difficult individuals; these characteristics were also long-standing rather than introduced by the disorder. Most of the traits recognized prior to the onset of
in individuals can be grouped as either paranoid or schizoid. Patients presenting with
were most often found to be living by themselves (either single, widowed, or divorced). There have also been reports of low marriage rate among paraphrenics and these individuals also have few or no children (possibly because of this premorbid personality).
According to Michael Phelan, Padraig Wright, and Julian Stern (2000), paranoia and
are debated entities that were detached from dementia praecox by Kraepelin, who explained paranoia as a continuous systematized delusion arising much later in life with no presence of either hallucinations or a deteriorating course,
as an identical syndrome to paranoia but with hallucinations. Even at the present time, a delusion need not be suspicious or fearful to be classified as paranoid. A person might be diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia without delusions of persecution, simply because their delusions refer mainly to themselves.
is often associated with a physical change in the brain, such as a tumor, stroke, ventricular enlargement, or neurodegenerative process. Research that reviewed the relationship between organic brain lesions and the development of delusions suggested that "brain lesions which lead to subcortical dysfunction could produce delusions when elaborated by an intact cortex."
Delusions typically occur in the context of neurological or psychiatric disease, although they are not tied to any particular disorder and have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both physical and mental). However, they are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia,
, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.
The development of paranoia and hallucinations in old age have been related to both auditory and visual impairment, and individuals with
often present with one or both of these impairments. Hearing loss in paraphrenics is associated with early age of onset, long duration, and profound auditory loss.
The term was also used by Sigmund Freud for a short time starting in 1911 as an alternative to the terms schizophrenia and dementia praecox, which in his estimation did not correctly identify the underlying condition, and by Emil Kraepelin in 1913, who changed its meaning to describe
as it is understood today, as a small group of individuals that have many of the symptoms of schizophrenia with a lack of deterioration and thought disorder. Kraepelin's study was discredited by Wilhelm Mayer in 1921 when he conducted a follow-up study using Kraepelin's data. His study suggested that there was little to no discrimination between schizophrenia and
; given enough time, patients presenting with
will merge into the schizophrenic pool. However, Meyer's data are open to various interpretations. In 1952, Roth and Morrissey conducted a large study in which they surveyed the mental hospital admissions of older patients. They characterized patients as having "paraphrenic delusions which… occurred in each case in the setting of a well-preserved intellect and personality, were often ‘primary’ in character, and were usually associated with the passivity failings or other volitional disturbances and hallucinations in clear consciousness pathognomonic of schizophrenia".
José María López Lledín (died 11 July 1985), usually known as El Caballero de París (roughly, the "gentleman of Paris"), was a mentally ill resident of Havana, Cuba. He was a patient of the Psychiatric Hospital of Havana, and was diagnosed as suffering from confabulatory
. He wandered the streets of Havana and became well-known and popular. He is portrayed in a bronze statue by José Villa Soberón.
In recent medicine, the term "
" has been replaced by the diagnosis of "very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis" and has also been called "atypical psychoses, delusional disorder, psychoses not otherwise specified, schizoaffective disorders, and persistent persecutory states of older adults" by psychotherapists. Current studies, however, recognize the condition as "a viable diagnostic entity that is distinct from schizophrenia, with organic factors playing a role in a significant portion of patients."
As a psychiatrist, Kahlbaum realized that attempting to group mental disorders based on similarities of outward symptoms was futile, and in his work tried to develop a classification system that grouped mental diseases according to their course and outcome. He is remembered for research done at Görlitz with his associate Ewald Hecker (1843–1909) involving studies of young psychotic patients. In their analyses of mental disorders, Kahlbaum and Hecker introduced a classification system that used descriptive terms such as dysthymia, cyclothymia, catatonia,
and hebephrenia. In their research they were pioneers in the application of modern clinical practices in the study of mental health.
Psychiatrists in particular are interested in "descriptive psychopathology", which has the aim of describing the symptoms and syndromes of mental illness. This is both for the diagnosis of individual patients (to see whether the patient's experience fits any pre-existing classification), or for the creation of diagnostic systems (such as the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" or "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems") which define which signs and symptoms should make up a diagnosis, and how experiences and behaviours should be grouped in particular diagnoses (e.g. clinical depression,
, paranoia, schizophrenia).
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