Synonyms for parosmia or Related words with parosmia

hyperosmia              troposmia              micropsia              hyperarousal              anosognosia              anomia              anosmia              misophonia              cacosmia              hemihypacusis              palinopsia              osmophobia              agnosias              aphasias              hypergeusia              paraphasia              phantosmia              dysphasia              hemianopsia              dysesthesia              hemiballismus              trismus              hyperacousis              hypoesthesia              hypogeusia              prosopagnosia              dysosmia              paresthesias              anomic              macropsia              dysgnosia              hyperacusis              derealization              scotomata              dysgeusia              hemianopia              aboulia              hemihypesthesia              dysphoria              hypervigilance              glossophobia              hyporeflexia              hemianesthesia              amusia              echolalia              ageusia              nonconvulsive              hypersalivation              radiculopathic              meige             



Examples of "parosmia"
There are numerous diseases that parosmia is associated with. In the case study cited above, Frasnelli "et al." examined five patients that endured parosmia or phantosmia, most as a result of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). It is hypothesized that URTIs can result in parosmia because of damage to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs).
Parosmia is a genus of moths of the Noctuidae family.
Parosmia is also a known symptom for Parkinson's disease, though not ubiquitous for patients with it, and although the specific pathway is undetermined, the lack of dopamine has resulted in documented cases of parosmia and phantosmia.
Exposure to harmful solvents has also been linked to parosmia and more specifically damaging ORNs.
Fortunately for patients afflicted with parosmia, symptoms usually decrease with time. Although there are instances of parosmia affecting patients for years at a time, this is certainly not the majority of cases. There have been experiments done to treat parosmia with L-Dopa, but besides that there are no current treatments other than inducing anosmia or hyposmia to the point where the odors are negligible.
One method used to establish parosmia is the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, or UPSIT. "Sniffin' Sticks" are another method that can be used to properly diagnose parosmia. These different techniques can also help deduce whether a specific case of parosmia can be attributed to just one stimulating odor or if there is a group of stimulating odors that will generate the displaced smell. One case study performed by Frasnelli "et al." offers a situation where certain smells, specifically coffees, cigarettes, onions, and perfumes, induced a "nauseating" odor for the patient, one which was artificial but unable to be aptly related to another known smell. In another case study cited in the same paper, one woman had parosmia in one nostril but not the other. Medical examinations and MRIs did not reveal any abnormalities; however the parosmia in this case was degenerative and only got worse with time. The authors do comment, however, that cases of parosmia can predict regeneration of olfactory senses.
Dysosmia is a disorder described as any qualitative alteration or distortion of the perception of smell. Qualitative alterations differ from quantitative alterations, which include anosmia and hyposmia. Dysosmia can be classified as either parosmia (also called troposmia) or phantosmia. Parosmia refers to a distortion in the perception of an odorant. Odorants smell different from what one remembers. Phantosmia refers to the perception of an odor when there's no actual odorant present. The cause of dysosmia still remains a theory. It is typically considered a neurological disorder and clinical associations with the disorder have been made. Most cases are described as idiopathic and the main antecedents related to parosmia are URTIs, head trauma, and nasal and paranasal sinus disease. Dysosmia tends to go away on its own but there are options for treatment for patients that want immediate relief.
Parosmia (from the Greek παρά "pará" and ὀσμή "osmḗ"), also known as troposmia (Gk.) or cacosmia (Gk.), is an olfactory dysfunction that is characterized by the inability of the brain to properly identify an odor's "natural" smell.
Parosmia refers to a distortion in the perception of an odorant. Odorants smell different from what one remembers. A more specific term, cacosmia, refers to an unpleasant perception of an odorant due to nasosinusal or pharyngeal infection.
Most of cases are described as idiopathic and the main antecedents related to parosmia are URTIs, head trauma, and nasal and paranasal sinus disease. Psychiatric causes for smell distortion can exist in schizophrenia, alcoholic psychosis, depression, and olfactory reference syndrome.
Different types of head traumas could obviously lead to dysfunctions that relate to what the afflicted brain area controls. In humans, the olfactory bulb is located on the inferior side of the brain. Physical damage to this area would alter how the area processes information in a variety of ways, but there are also other types of diseases that can alter how this area works. If the part of the brain that interprets these input signals is damaged, then a distorted output is possible. This would also lead to parosmia. Temporal lobe epilepsy has also led to cases of parosmia, but these were only temporary; the onset of parosmia was a seizure and it typically lasted a week or two after.
The frequency of phantosmia is rare in comparison with the frequency of parosmia. Parosmia has been estimated to be in 10-60% of patients with olfactory dysfunction and from studies, it has been shown that it can last anywhere from 3 months to 22 years. Smell and taste problems result in over 200,000 visits to physicians annually in the US. Lately, it has been thought that phantosmia might co-occur with Parkinson's disease. However, its potential to be a premotor biomarker for Parkinson's is still up for debate as not all patients with Parkinson's disease have olfactory disorders
Olfactory dysfunction can be quantitative and/or qualitative. Quantitative smell disorders refer to disorders in which there is complete or partial loss of olfaction. Anosmia, the complete loss of olfaction, and hyposmia, the partial loss of olfaction are the two disorders classified as quantitative because they can be measured. Qualitative smell disorders can’t be measured and refer to disorders in which there is alternation or distortion in the perception of smell. Qualitative disorders include parosmia (also called troposmia) and phantosmia. The term dysosmia refers to a qualitative olfaction disorder and include both parosmia and phantosmia. Olfactory dysfunction including anosmia, hyposmia, and dysosmia can be either bilateral or unilateral on either nostril. Anosmia only on the left nostril would be termed unilateral left anosmia while bilateral anosmia would be termed total anosmia.
Damage to the olfactory nerve (I) can cause an inability to smell (anosmia), a distortion in the sense of smell (parosmia), or a distortion or lack of taste. If there is suspicion of a change in the sense of smell, each nostril is tested with substances of known odors such as coffee or soap. Intensely smelling substances, for example ammonia, may lead to the activation of pain receptors (nociceptors) of the trigeminal nerve that are located in the nasal cavity and this can confound olfactory testing.
Even though the causes of dysosmia are not yet clear, there are two general theories that describe the etiology: the peripheral and central theories. In parosmia, the peripheral theory refers to the inability to form a complete picture of an odorant due to the loss of functioning olfactory receptor neurons. The central theory refers to integrative centers in the brain forming a distorted odor. In phantosmia, the peripheral theory refers to neurons emitting abnormal signals to the brain or the loss of inhibitory cells that are normally present in normal functioning. The central theory for phantosmia is described as an area of hyper-functioning brain cells that generate the order perception. Evidence to support these theories include findings that for the majority of individuals with distortions, there is a loss of sensitivity to smell that accompanies it and the distortions are worse at the time of the decreased sensitivity. It has been reported in parosmia cases that patients can identify triggering stimuli. Common triggers include gasoline, tobacco, coffee, perfum, fruits and chocolate.
Other leading causes of phantosmia include neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Both of these disorders have well documented cases of hallucinations, most commonly visual and auditory. Both also, however, have instances of phantosmia too, although not as frequently. In both cases, incidences of olfactory delusions are more common, especially in Alzheimer's, where it is exceedingly difficult to convince the patient that these are in fact hallucinations and not real. Specifically in Alzheimer's disease, atrophy in the temporal lobe has been known to occur. As evidenced in trauma and seizures, phantosmia is strongly associated with this area; leading to its appearance in some Alzheimer's patients. Parkinson's disease patients can also experience phantosmia, as well as parosmia, however their appearance is less common than the muscle tremors the patients experience.
Diagnosing a patient can be difficult as they are often frustrated from ineffective therapy and being told they have mental illnesses. Some patients actually have trouble deciding whether they have a taste or smell problem. In this case asking questions about food choices will help determine whether a patient has a smell or taste disorder. It is important to identify whether the distortion applies to an inhaled odorant or if an odor exists without the stimulus. The distortion of an odorant is presented in two types: the stimuli are different from what one remembers and in the second, everything has a similar smell. A clinical history can also help determine what kind of disorder one has because events such as respiratory infection and head trauma are usually indications of parosmia where as phantosmias usually have no history of such events and occur spontaneously. Unfortunately there are no accurate diagnostic tests or methods for dysosmia. Evaluation must be done through questionnaires and medical history.
Phantosmia (olfactory hallucinations), smelling an odor that is not actually there, and parosmia (olfactory illusions), inhaling a real odor but perceiving it as different scent than remembered, are distortions to the sense of smell (olfactory system) that, in most cases, are not caused by anything serious and usually go away on their own in time. It can result from a range of conditions such as nasal infections, nasal polyps, dental problems, migraines, head injuries, seizures, strokes, or brain tumors. Environmental exposures are sometimes the cause as well, such as smoking, exposure to certain types of chemicals (e.g., insecticides or solvents), or radiation treatment for head or neck cancer. It can also be a symptom of certain mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, intoxication or withdrawal from drugs and alcohol, or psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). The perceived odors are usually unpleasant and commonly described as smelling burned, foul spoiled, or rotten.