Synonyms for parous or Related words with parous
Examples of "parous"
Although circulating levels of estriol are very low outside of pregnancy,
women have higher levels of estriol than do nulliparous women.
Wrangham proposed the cost-of-sexual-attraction hypothesis as a result of comparing the number of sexual cycles between conceptions that are experienced by both
and nulliparous female chimpanzees, as well as
western and eastern chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes verus" and "Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii"), and the size of the sexual swellings that came with these differences"." Through observing these groups in both species, he suggested that two factors are most important in determining how obviously a female displays the ovulatory stage in her cycle: the level of scramble competition that exists between the females of the group for resources such as food; and the difference in travelling costs for
and nulliparous females.
The vaginal opening (orifice or introitus) is at the outer end of the vulva, posterior to the opening of the urethra, at the posterior end of the vestibule. The opening is closed by the labia minora in female virgins and in females who have never given birth (nulliparae), but may be exposed in females who have given birth (
Substantial pain with insertion that needs active management occurs in approximately 17% of nulliparous women and approximately 11% of
women. In such cases, NSAID are evidenced to be effective. However, no prophylactic analgesic drug have been found to be effective for routine use for women undergoing IUD insertion.
"Contraceptive Technology" reports that the method failure rate of the Prentif cervical cap with spermicide is 9% per year for nulliparous women (women who have never given birth), and 26% per year for
women. The actual pregnancy rates among Prentif users vary depending on the population being studied, with yearly rates of 11% to 32% being reported.
The only effectiveness trial of Lea's Shield was too small to determine method effectiveness. The actual pregnancy rate was 15% per year. Of the women in the trial, 85% were
(had given birth). The study authors estimate that for nulliparous women (those who have never given birth) the pregnancy rate in typical use may be lower, around 5% per year.
Prolonged nulliparity () is a risk factor for breast cancer. For instance, a meta-analysis of 8 population-based studies in the Nordic countries found that nulliparity was associated with a 30% increase in risk of breast cancer compared with
women, and for every 2 births, the risk was reduced by about 16%. Women having their first birth after the age of 35 years had a 40% increased risk compared to those with a first birth before the age of 20 years.
During early pregnancy, type 1 lobules quickly become type 2 lobules because of changes in estrogen and progesterone levels. Maturing into type 3 and then reaching full differentiation as type 4 lobules requires an increase of human placental lactogen (hPL) which occurs in the last few months of pregnancy. According to the abortion–breast cancer hypothesis, if an abortion were to interrupt this sequence then it could leave a higher ratio of type 2 lobules than existed prior to the pregnancy. Russo and Russo have shown that mature breast cells have more time for DNA repair with longer cell cycles, accounting for the slightly reduced risk of breast cancer for
women against the baseline risk for women who have never conceived and those who have conceived and terminated their pregnancies.
Olympic marmots start to enter hibernation in early September. Before hibernating, the marmots bring dry grasses into the burrow for bedding or food. Sometimes in early September marmots will stay in their burrows for a few consecutive days, with only brief outings that allow for a little foraging. During this period, they do not play fight or socialize with other marmots; they limit themselves to peeking out and casually sitting outside their burrows. Nonparous females (those who have not given birth yet) and adult males become inactive first, because they do not need to store as much fat beforehand. The
females, yearlings, and young of the year become inactive a few weeks later, because they have to gain more weight. The marmots of a colony hibernate in a single burrow space, which they keep closed with dirt. Adults emerge in May, and the young in June. Marmots do not eat during hibernation, so they have to store fat before becoming inactive.
The behaviors that occur among male and female Woodlark cuscus before, during, and after mating have not yet been observed. However, the capture of five female Woodlark cuscuses in August 1987 led to the following interesting observations: one of the females were
but did not have any young while another was clearly lactating. Two others had its naked young in their pouches while one of them had its older young on its back. This transition from the pouch of the mother to the back of the mother as the young age is typical in the Phalanger lullulae because they are metatherians and this transition is typical metatherian behavior. The various states of the young and female cuscuses were in demonstrate that the breeding season most likely happens over a long period of time. It has also been noted that they give birth to single young.
A number of adaptive functions have been proposed to account for the widespread incidences of allomaternal care in mammalian and avian species. Jane Lancaster noted the reproductive benefits for primates as k-strategists in learning to be better mothers, or acquiring mothering skills. Her learning-to-mother hypothesis postulates that primate females with no children of their own participate in allomothering, and evidence from studies by Sarah Hrdy and Lynn Fairbanks shows that females without offspring "tried to allomother more frequently than what you'd expected based on their proportion of the group's population, while
females tried it much less than expected from their population in the group." The hypothesis is supported by evidence of the success of allomothering as a learning technique. "Lynn Fairbanks studied vervets and found that first-time mothers with high alloparenting experience raised 100% of their first offspring to maturity, but mothers with low experience had less than a 50% survival rate of their first infant." Other hypothesis include "alliance-formation", where subordinate allomothers endeavour to form social alliances with dominant mothers by interacting with their infants. Under kin-selection theory, related allomothers may improve their inclusive fitness if the allomothering behaviour contributes to the survival or faster reproductive rate of the mother. Finally, allomaternal care has been suggested to be a by-product of maternal care. However, this hypothesis would not explain the high levels of care seen by juvenile, subadult or unrelated adult males in many [primate] species.
This species, along with the hoary marmot, has the lowest reproductive rate of any rodent. A female Olympic marmot has a litter of from one to six young (3.3 on average) in alternate years. In a given year, a third of females will have a litter. Half of the pups die before the following spring. Those pups that survive the following spring can live into their teens. Both males and females mature sexually at three years, but females generally do not reproduce until they are four and a half years old. The marmot comes out from hibernation at the beginning of May, and estrus (heat) occurs about two weeks later. After hibernation ends, both male and female Olympic marmots attempt to entice the opposite sex with courtship rituals. Females who have never produced a litter before tend to be more aggressive and will chase or instigate fights with males; females which have already produced young tend to greet the male with nasal to nasal or nasal to genital contact, with copulation following shortly afterwards. This approach is more successful than the aggressive manner of the non-
female, with mating taking place within 11 to 20 days after hibernation. The relationship between a sexually mature male and female Olympic marmot is polygynous; males tend to breed with three or four females in each mating season.
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