Synonyms for pedal_phalanx or Related words with pedal_phalanx

retroarticular_process              metatarsi              condyles              trochlear_nerve              coxae              metatarsal              internal_granular_layer              abducens              metatarsals              trochanter              condyle              supratemporal              osteophytosis              longus_flexor              metacarpal              trochlear              accessory_nerve_xi              plantar_interossei              lateral_condyle              dorsal_interossei              metacarpals              jugal_bone              opisthotic              middle_cranial_fossa              midshaft              sulcus_sulcus              epiphysis              trochlea              tarsals              zpal_mgd              digastric              glenoid              diaphysis              oculomotor_nerve              medial_condyle              parietal_bone              quadrate_bone              tuberosity              coronoid_process              linea_aspera              flexor_digiti_minimi_brevis              killerdome              pronator_quadratus              interosseus              pectineal_line              extensor_digiti              splenial              nerve_cranial_nerve              distal_articular              mandibular_arch             

Examples of "pedal_phalanx"
In their taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae, Tschopp "et al." noted that a pedal phalanx included in AC 663 is apparently not from the same individual as the rest of AC 663 given differences in preservation and coloration among individual bones, raising doubts on whether "Dyslocosaurus" had more than three claws on the feet. Although fragmentary, "Dyslocosaurus" was recovered as a member of Dicraeosauridae, potentially making it the second record of a dicraeosaurid from North America (the other being "Suuwassea").
The material of "Poekilopleuron bucklandii" includes two tail vertebrae with the chevron of one vertebra ankylosed to the centrum of the next within the development of an exostosis. Two phalanges also preserve pathologies. One probable pedal phalanx shows three low, irregular exostosis-like projections. A second probable manual phalanx exhibits a "low rounded projection resembling a callus." Ralph Molnar considered the occurrence of three pathologies in one individual to be "noteworthy". Sadly the specimens cannot be examined further to determine the etiology of the pathologies because of their destruction during the British bombing raid in 1944.
The holotype, LACM 20877, was found in a layer of the La Bocana Roja Formation, dating from the late Campanian, about 73 million years old. It consists of a very fragmentary skeleton with skull elements, including a right quadrate, a left frontal, a piece of the left maxilla, a fragment of the dentarium, a chevron, the upper parts of both ischia, the middle shaft of the right pubis, most of the second right metatarsal, a pedal phalanx and several loose teeth. The elements were not articulated, dispersed over a surface of about two square metres, and strongly weathered. The remains were mixed with the ribs of Hadrosauroidea.
TMP91.36.500 is another "Gorgosaurus" with preserved face bite injuries but also has a thoroughly healed fracture in the right fibula. Also present was a healed fracture in the dentary and what the authors describing the specimen referred to as "a mushroom-like hyperostosis of a right pedal phalanx." Ralph Molnar has speculated that this may be the same kind of pathology afflicting an unidentified ornithomimid discovered with a similar mushroom shaped growth on a toe bone. TMP91.36.500 is also preserved in a characteristic death pose.
Other pathologies reported in "Allosaurus" include: Willow breaks in two ribs. Healed fractures in the humerus and radius. Distortion of joint surfaces in the foot possibly due to osteoarthritis or developmental issues. Osteopetrosis along the endosteal surface of a tibia. Distortions of the joint surfaces of the tail vertebrae possibly due to osetoarthritis or developmental issues. "[E]xtensive 'neoplastic' ankylosis of caudals," possibly due to physical trauma as well as the fusion of chevrons to centra. Coossification of vertebral centra near the end of the tail. Amputation of a chevron and foot bone, both possibly a result of bites. "[E]xtensive exostoses" in the first phalanx of the third toe. Lesions similar to those caused by osteomyelitis in two scapulae. Bone spurs in a premaxilla, ungual, and two metacarpals. Exostosis in a pedal phalanx possibly attributable to an infectious disease. A metacarpal with a round depressed fracture.
A diagnosis is a statement of the anatomical features of an organism (or group) that collectively distinguish it from all other organisms. Some, but not all, of the features in a diagnosis are also autapomorphies. An autapomorphy is a distinctive anatomical feature that is unique to a given organism or group. According to Novas et al. (2009), "Austroraptor" can be distinguished based on the following characteristics: a lacrimal that is highly pneumatized, with the descending process strongly curved rostrally*, and with a caudal process flaring out horizontally above the orbit, the postorbital bone is lacking a dorsomedial process for articulation with the frontal bone*, and with the squamosal process extremely reduced, the maxillary and dentary teeth are small, conical, devoid of serrations and fluted, the humerus is short, representing slightly less than fifty percent of length of the femur, the pedal phalanx II-2 is transversely narrow, contrasting with the extremely robust phalanx IV-2.
The holotype specimen of "Acristavus", MOR 1155, was recovered at the Two Medicine Formation, in Teton County, Montana. The specimen was collected in 1999 by C. Riley Nelson in well-indurated tan colored calcareous sandstone that was deposited during the Campanian stage of the Cretaceous period, approximately 79 million years ago. MOR 1155 consists of an almost complete skull with associated postcrania including eleven cervical vertebrae, three incomplete dorsal vertebrae, a proximal caudal vertebra, several dorsal ribs, the left humerus, the left ulna, the right sternal, the left pubis, the left femur, the left tibia, two left metatarsals, five left pedal phalanges and one right pedal phalanx. A second specimen UMNHVP 16607 assigned to "Acristavus" in 2011, was excavated from the Smokey Mountain Road locality in Middle Mudstone Member of the Wahweap Formation in Utah. It was collected by C. R. Nelson in 2000, in lithified, yellow sandstone believed to be from the same time period as the type specimen. UMNHVP 16607 consists of a partial articulated skull, including both lacrimals, a complete braincase, and a cervical vertebra.
The earliest record of the order Opisthocomiformes is "Protoazin parisiensis", from the latest Eocene (approximately 34 mya) of Romainville, France. The holotype and only known specimen is NMB PG.70, consisting of partial coracoid, partial scapula, and partial pedal phalanx. According to the phylogenetic analysis performed by the authors, "Namibiavis", although later, is more basal than "Protoazin". Opisthocomiforms seem to have been much more widespread in the past, with the present South American distribution being only a relic. By the Early to Middle Miocene, they were probably extinct in Europe already, as formations dated to this time and representing fluvial or lacustrine palaeoenvironments, in which the hoatzin thrives today, have yielded dozens of bird specimens, but no opisthocomiform. A possible explanation to account for the extinction of "Protoazin" between the Late Eocene and the Early Miocene in Europe, and of "Namibiavis" after the Middle Miocene of Sub-Saharan Africa is the arrival of arboreal carnivorans, predation by which could have had a devastating effect on the local opisthocomiforms, if they were as poor flyers and had similarly vulnerable nesting strategies as today's hoatzins. Felids and viverrids first arrived in Europe from Asia after the Turgai Sea closed, marking the boundary between the Eocene and the Oligocene. None of these predators, and for the matter, no placental predator at all was present in South America before the Great American Interchange 3 mya, which could explain the survival of the hoatzin there. In addition to being the earliest fossil record of an opisthocomiform, "Protoazin" was also the earliest find of one (1912), but it was forgotten for more than a century, being described only in 2014.