Synonyms for perimenopausal or Related words with perimenopausal
Examples of "perimenopausal"
and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy*: Part 2. Hormonal Regimens and Complementary and Alternative Therapies" "Journal of Nurse-Midwifery"
hormone replacement therapy: Review of the literature" "Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health"
Cervical polyps are most common in women who have had children and
women. They are rare in pre-menstrual girls and uncommon in post-menopausal women.
and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Part 1. An update of the literature on benefits and risks" "Journal of Nurse-Midwifery"
Even without treatment, symptoms tend to decrease in
women. However, women who experience PMS or PMDD are more likely to have significant symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes.
Another study concluded that one important measure of arterial health, systemic arterial compliance, was significantly improved in
and menopausal women taking soy isoflavones to about the same extent as is achieved with conventional hormone replacement therapy.
Some research appears to show that melatonin supplementation in
women can improve thyroid function and gonadotropin levels, as well as restoring fertility and menstruation and preventing depression associated with menopause.
Progesterone and some of its metabolites, such as 5β-dihydroprogesterone, are agonists of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), albeit weakly so (EC >10 µM). In accordance, progesterone induces several hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, such as CYP3A4, especially during pregnancy when concentrations are much higher than usual.
women have been found to have greater CYP3A4 activity relative to men and postmenopausal women, and it has been inferred that this may be due to the higher progesterone levels present in
"BRCA2" related ovarian cancer tends to present in
or menopausal women, so salpingo-oophorectomy is recommended between ages 45 and 50. If it is done before menopause, then the women also benefit from a reduced risk of breast cancer.
He extended his interests on hormone therapy for women, particularly relating to osteoporosis and hormone responsive depression. He was a founder of the National Osteoporosis Society. He was the first to show in randomised controlled trials that transdermal oestrogens are extremely effective in the treatment of postnatal depression, premenstrual depression, and
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause is medical treatment in surgically menopausal,
and postmenopausal women. Its goal is to mitigate discomfort caused by diminished circulating estrogen and progesterone hormones in menopause. Combination HRT is often recommended as it decreases the amount of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer associated with unopposed estrogen therapy. The main hormones involved are estrogen, progesterone and a drug called progestin. Some recent therapies include the use of androgens as well.
The female hormone estrogen, when used in the combined oral contraceptive pill and in
hormone replacement therapy, has been associated with a two- to sixfold increased risk of venous thrombosis. The risk depends on the type of hormones used, the dose of estrogen, and the presence of other thrombophilic risk factors. Various mechanisms, such as deficiency of protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, are said to be responsible.
HRT is available in various forms. It generally provides low dosages of one or more estrogens, and often also provides either progesterone or a chemical analogue, called a progestin. Testosterone may also be included. Some HRT treatments such as Livial contain Tibolone, an anabolic steroid, that has the properties of oestrogen, progestogen and testosterone. Such treatments aren't usually recommended to women who are
or for at least 12 months after the last menstrual period.
Goldstein has authored such textbooks as Endovaginal Ultrasound and Ultrasound in Gynecology. More recently, he wrote Gynecologic Ultrasound: A Problem Based Approach, Imaging in the Infertile Couple and Textbook of
Gynecology. He is the author of more than 60 chapters in textbooks and over 80 original research articles . His work has gained him recognition worldwide, and he is one of the most highly regarded individuals in the field of vaginal probe ultrasound. Because of his expertise, Dr. Goldstein has been invited to serve in roles such as guest faculty member, invited speaker, visiting professor, and course director over 400 times in the United States and across the world.
If the bleeding is from multiple or inaccessible sites, systemic therapy with medication may be necessary. First-line options include the antifibrinolytics tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid. Estrogens can be used to stop bleeding from angiodysplasia. Estrogens cause mild hypercoaguability of the blood. Estrogen side effects can be dangerous and unpleasant in both sexes. Changes in voice and breast swelling is bothersome in men, but older women often report improvement of libido and
symptoms. (The worries about hormone replacement therapy/HRT, however, apply here as well.)
The duct ectasia—periductal mastitis complex affects two groups of women: young women (in their late teens and early 20s) and
women. Women in the younger group mostly have inverted nipples due to squamous metaplasia that lines the ducts more extensively compared to other women and produces keratin plugs which in turn lead to duct obstruction and then duct dilation, secretory stasis, inflammation, infection and abscess. This is not typically the case for women in the older group; in this group, there is likely a multifactorial etiology involving the balance in estrogen, progesterone and prolactin.
The Society's official journal, "Climacteric", the Journal of Adult Women's Health and Medicine, was founded in 1998 and is listed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE. The editors-in-Chief are Anna Fenton (New Zealand), and Nick Panay (United Kingdom). It publishes international, original, peer-reviewed research on all aspects of aging in men and women, especially during the menopause and climacteric. The content of the journal covers the whole range of subject areas relevant to climacteric studies and adult women’s health and medicine, including underlying endocrinological changes, treatment of the symptoms of the menopause and other age-related changes, hormone replacement therapies, alternative therapies, effective life-style modifications, non-hormonal midlife changes, and the counselling and education of
and postmenopausal patients.
Triple smear or vaginal-cervical-edocervical (VCE) smear is a cytopathology technique for identifying lesions of the female genital tract. The smear is prepared on separate areas of a single slide with three distinct samples, each from ectocervix, vagina and endocervix. Each sample occupies one-third of the glass slide. This method requires expertise as three samples need to be collected rapidly to avoid drying up of the smear. Triple smear is recommended in patients who had a previous abnormal smear (or endometrial debris in previous smear in a climacteric woman), in postmenopausal women, women with
bleeding and those with high risk for endometrial carcinoma. In some institutions, triple smear is recommended for routine screening to allow localization of lesions. Due to simplicity of implementation, triple smear is the best technique to screen for cervical cancer.
The WHI trial was limited by low adherence, high attrition, inadequate power to detect risks for some outcomes, and evaluation of few regimens. Subsequent to publication of the WHI, controversy arose regarding the applicability of its findings to women just entering menopause. To be properly double blinded, the study required that women not be
or have symptoms of menopause. As the average age of menopause is 51, this resulted in an older study population, with an average age of 63. Only 3.5% of the women were 50–54 years of age, the time when women usually decide whether to initiate hormonal therapy. Further analysis of WHI data, however, demonstrated that there is no gained preventive benefit in starting hormone therapy soon after menopause.
After graduating from the New York University School of Medicine in 1975, he completed an internship in obstetrics and gynecology at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas from 1975-1976. He then completed a residency in obstetrics and gynecology at NYU Affiliated Hospitals/Bellevue Hospital Center from 1976 to 1980. In 1980 he joined the faculty of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at NYU School of Medicine. He also maintains a half-time private practice as a generalist in obstetrics and gynecology in the faculty practice suites at NYU Langone Medical Center. Clinically, his practice has evolved, focusing more on menopausal and
medicine with particular emphasis in ultrasound applications both for adnexal masses and abnormal bleeding.
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