Synonyms for pernio or Related words with pernio
Examples of "pernio"
is a chronic raised indurated (hardened) lesion of the skin, often purplish in color. It is seen on the nose, ears, cheeks, lips, and forehead. It is pathognomonic of sarcoidosis. The name "lupus
" is a misnomer, as microscopically this disease shows granulomatous infiltration and does not have features of either lupus or
is associated with poor outcomes and lower rate of resolution.
Löfgren syndrome is associated with a good prognosis,with > 90% of patients experiencing disease resolution within 2 years. In contrast, patients with the disfiguring skin condition lupus
or cardiac or neurologic involvement rarely experience disease remission.
He built histopathology and parasitology laboratories at the hospital, and is credited with originating the term biopsy for tissue samples. In 1889 he proved an early description of skin lesions associated with sarcoidosis, introducing the name "lupus
Among his numerous written works was a textbook on skin diseases titled ""Lehrbuch der hautkrankheiten"", and three papers on lupus
. In 1904 he provided the first description of bone cysts in sarcoidosis.
Sarcoidosis involves the skin in about 25% of patients. The most common lesions are erythema nodosum, plaques, maculopapular eruptions, subcutaneous nodules, and lupus
. Treatment is not required, since the lesions usually resolve spontaneously in two to four weeks. Although it may be disfiguring, cutaneous sarcoidosis rarely causes major problems.
Other symptoms due to sarcoidosis of other organs may be uveitis (inflammation of the uveal layer in the eye), dyspnoea (shortness of breath), arthralgia (joint pains), lupus
(a red skin rash, usually of the face), erythema nodosum (red skin lumps, usually on the shins), and symptoms of liver involvement (jaundice) or heart involvement (heart failure).
Sarcoidosis involves the skin in between 9 and 37% of persons and is more common in African Americans than in European Americans. The skin is the second most commonly affected organ after the lungs. The most common lesions are erythema nodosum, plaques, maculopapular eruptions, subcutaneous nodules, and lupus
. Treatment is not required, since the lesions usually resolve spontaneously in two to four weeks. Although it may be disfiguring, cutaneous sarcoidosis rarely causes major problems. Sarcoidosis of the scalp presents with diffuse or patchy hair loss.
Chilblains () — also known as
, Chill Burns and perniosis — is a medical condition that occurs when a predisposed individual is exposed to cold and humidity, causing tissue damage. It is often confused with frostbite and trench foot. Damage to capillary beds in the skin causes redness, itching, inflammation, and sometimes blisters. Chilblains can be reduced by keeping the feet and hands warm in cold weather, and avoiding extreme temperature changes. Chilblains can be idiopathic (spontaneous and unrelated to another disease), but may also be a manifestation of another serious medical condition that needs to be investigated. A history of chilblains is suggestive of a connective tissue disease (such as lupus). Chilblains in infants, together with severe neurologic disease and unexplained fevers, can be seen in Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, a rare inherited condition.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease that can affect any organ, although it can be asymptomatic and is discovered by accident in about 5% of cases. Common symptoms, which tend to be vague, include fatigue (unrelieved by sleep; occurs in 66% of cases), lack of energy, weight loss, joint aches and pains (which occur in about 70% of cases), arthritis (14–38% of persons), dry eyes, swelling of the knees, blurry vision, shortness of breath, a dry, hacking cough, or skin lesions. Less commonly, people may cough up blood. The cutaneous symptoms vary, and range from rashes and noduli (small bumps) to erythema nodosum, granuloma annulare, or lupus
. Sarcoidosis and cancer may mimic one another, making the distinction difficult.
It was first described in 1877 by Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson, a dermatologist as a condition causing red, raised rashes on the face, arms, and hands. In 1889 the term Lupus
was coined by Dr. Ernest Besnier, another dermatologist. Later in 1892 lupus pernio's histology was defined. In 1902 bone involvement was first described by a group of three doctors. Between 1909 and 1910 uveitis in sarcoidosis was first described, and later in 1915 it was emphasised, by Dr. Schaumann, that it was a systemic condition. This same year lung involvement was also described. In 1937 uveoparotid fever was first described and likewise in 1941 Löfgren syndrome was first described. In 1958 the first international conference on sarcoidosis was called in London, likewise the first USA sarcoidosis conference occurred in Washington, DC in the year 1961. It has also been called Besnier-Boeck disease or Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease.
The principal (primary) form of acrocyanosis is that of a benign cosmetic condition, sometimes caused by a relatively benign neurohormonal disorder. Regardless of its cause, the benign form typically does not require medical treatment. A medical emergency would ensue if the extremities experience prolonged periods of exposure to the cold, particularly in children and patients with poor general health. However, frostbite differs from acrocyanosis because pain (via thermal nociceptors) often accompanies the former condition, while the latter is very rarely associated with pain. There are also a number of other conditions that affect hands, feet, and parts of the face with associated skin color changes that need to be differentiated from acrocyanosis: Raynaud’s phenomenon,
, acrorygosis, erythromelalgia, blue finger syndrome. The diagnosis may be challenging in some cases, especially when these syndromes co-exist.
Ursodeoxycholic acid has been used successfully as a treatment for cases with liver involvement. Thalidomide has also been tried successfully as a treatment for treatment-resistant lupus
in a clinical trial, which may stem from its anti-TNF activity, although it failed to exhibit any efficacy in a pulmonary sarcoidosis clinical trial. Cutaneous disease may be successfully managed with antimalarials (such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) and the tetracycline antibiotic, minocycline. Antimalarials have also demonstrated efficacy in treating sarcoidosis-induced hypercalcemia and neurosarcoidosis. Long-term use of antimalarials is limited, however, by their potential to cause irreversible blindness and hence the need for regular ophthalmologic screening. This toxicity is usually less of a problem with hydroxychloroquine than with chloroquine, although hydroxychloroquine can disturb the glucose homeostasis.
People who are exposed to cold temperatures for prolonged periods are at greatest risk of frostbite, such as winter sports enthusiasts, military personnel, and homeless individuals. People with conditions that impair circulation of blood or ability to seek shelter are also at increased risk. These groups include people with diabetes and people who use alcohol. Cold temperatures cause blood vessels to narrow, slowing the flow of warm blood from the core of the body to the extremities. With prolonged exposure to cold, ice crystals form in tissues. These ice crystals, in turn, damage cells and blood vessels. Specific tests are not typically required for diagnosis. The person's history and physical exam are sufficient. Frostnip,
and trench foot can look similar to frostbite.
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