Synonyms for peronosporaceae or Related words with peronosporaceae
Examples of "peronosporaceae"
Hyaloperonospora is a genus of downy mildews (family
are a family of water moulds that contains 17 genera, comprising more than 600 species. Most of them are called downy mildews. The closest relative of
Bremia is a genus of water moulds in the family
The parasitized plants are angiosperms, and most
are pathogens of herbaceous dicots. Some downy mildew genera have a more restricted host range, e.g. Basidiophora, Paraperonospora, Protobremia and Bremia on Asteraceae; Perofascia and Hyaloperonospora almost only on Brassicaceae; Viennotia, Graminivora, Poakatesthia, Sclerospora and Peronosclerospora on Poaceae, Plasmoverna on Ranunculaceae. The largest genera, Peronospora and Plasmopara, have a very wide host range.
Hyaloperonospora parasitica is an oomycete from the family
. It has been considered for a long time to cause downy mildew of a variety of species within the Brassicaceae, on which the disease can cause economically important damage by killing seedlings or affecting the quality of produce intended for freezing.
Blue mold is a downy mildew disease of tobacco that is caused by "Peronospora tabacina", a fungus-like protist in the family
. Blue mold can cause severe damage to susceptible tobacco plants in many parts of the world. Since it is an obligate parasite, it must have living tobacco tissue in order to grow.
In horticulture, mildew is either species of fungus in the order Erysiphales, or fungus-like organisms in the family "
". It is also used more generally to mean mold growth. In Old English, mildew meant honeydew (a substance secreted by aphids on leaves, formerly thought to distill from the air like dew), and later came to mean mold or fungus.
Another plant-associated type of mildew is downy mildew, caused by fungus-like organisms in the family "
" ("Oomycota"). They are obligate plant pathogens, and the many species are each parasitic on a narrow range of hosts. In agriculture, downy mildews are a particular problem for potato, grape, tobacco and cucurbits farmers.
of economic importance include those that infect grapevines ("Plasmopara viticola") and tobacco ("Peronospora tabacina; blue mold"). The latter species has such a delicate spore that it times its spore release for sunrise, a time of high ambient moisture and dew accumulation, so that its spores are less likely to succumb to desiccation and light. "Bremia lactucae" is a parasite on lettuce, "Plasmopara halstedii" on sunflower.
"Hyaloperonospora parasitica" causes downy mildew on a wide range of many different plants. It belongs to the Kingdom Chromista, the phylum Oomycota, and the family
. The former name for "H. parasitica" was "Peronospora parasitica" until it was reclassified and put in the genus Hyaloperonospora. It is an especially vicious disease on crops of the Brassicaceae family. It is most famous for being a model pathogen of "Arabidopsis thaliana" which is a model organism used for experimental purposes.
Under its first research director, Hugo Hampp (from 1926 to 1944), the institute focussed on countering the
infections of the hop plants, which were causing downy mildew, primarily by means of pesticides. Hampp's successor, Friedrich Zattler (from 1944 to 1970), shifted the focus towards breeding of mildew-resistant hop varieties. This resulted in the new varieties "Hüller Anfang" (1962), "Hüller Aroma" (1962), "Hüller Fortschritt" (1964), "Hüller Bitterer" (1970), and "Hallertauer Gold" (1974).
are obligate biotrophic plant pathogens. They parasitize their host plants as an intercellular mycelium using haustoria to penetrate the host cells. The downy mildews reproduce asexually by forming sporangia on distinctive white sporangiophores usually formed on the lower surface of infected leaves. These constitute the "downy mildew". The sporangia are wind-dispersed to the surface of other leaves. According to the genus concerned, the sporangia may then germinate by forming zoospores, thus resembling "Phytophthora", or by germ-tube. In the latter case, the sporangia behave as conidia and are often referred to as such. Sexual reproduction is via oospores.
Hyaloperonospora brassicae, in the family
, is a plant pathogen. It causes downy mildew of species of "Brassica", "Raphanus", "Sinapis" and probably other genera within the "Brassicaceae". In the past, the cause of downy mildew in any plant in the family "Brassicaceae" was considered to be a single species "Peronospora parasitica". However, this has recently been shown to be a complex of species with narrower host ranges, now classified in the genus "Hyaloperonospora", for example "Hyaloperonospora parasitica" on the weed "Capsella bursa-pastoris". From the perspective of plant pathology, "Hyaloperonospora brassicae" is now the name of the most important pathogen in this complex, attacking the major agricultural and horticultural "Brassica" species. Other significant Brassicaceous hosts are attacked by different species in the complex, e.g. horseradish ("Armoracia rusticana") by "Hyaloperonospora cochleariae", wallflower ("Erysimum cheiri") by "Hyaloperonospora cheiranthi".
Downy mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete microbes that are obligate parasites of plants. Downy mildews exclusively belong to
. In commercial agriculture, they are a particular problem for growers of crucifers, grapes and vegetables that grow on vines. The prime example is "Peronospora farinosa" featured in NCBI-Taxonomy and HYP3. This pathogen does not produce survival structures in the northern states of the United States, and overwinters as live mildew colonies in Gulf Coast states. It progresses northward with cucurbit production each spring. Yield loss associated with downy mildew is most likely related to soft rots that occur after plant canopies collapse and sunburn occurs on fruit. Cucurbit downy mildew only affects leaves of cucurbit plants.
Constantinescu was born in Constanța in 1933. He first graduated military school before ultimately enrolling at the Biological Institute at Bucharest University in 1949. Traian Săvulescu, founder of the Institute, and his wife Alice advised Constantinescu while he was a student. Constantinescu graduated in 1970 from the Institute. Following his defense, he remained at the Institute as an assistant as well as the curator of the Mycological Herbarium there. In 1974, Constantinescu published a book, "Metode și tehnici în micologie", which was his first book on methods in mycology. Although it was never translated from Romanian, for its time it was widely recognized as one of the best mycological methods books. After working for one year in 1982 at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures in Baarn, Netherlands, he moved to Sweden in 1984. He was hired at the Institute for Systematic Botany at the University of Uppsala. Because of his vast knowledge and expertise about members of the order Peronosporales, he began the university's culture collection, known as Mykoteket. Constantinescu dedicated the next 20 years building up the collection for the university. He remained in Sweden at Uppsala University for the rest of his life working on members of the family
, describing six new genera to add to the family after none had been added for over 30 years. Constantinescu compiled and published an annotated list of over 500 species in the genus "Peronospora" in 1991. He is also known for describing new species of and working on downy mildew pathogens.
Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis is a species from the family
. It is an obligate parasite and the causal agent of the downy mildew of the plant model organism "Arabidopsis thaliana". While "H. arabidopsidis" has for a long time been subsumed under "Peronospora parasitica" (now "Hyaloperonospora parasitica"), recent studies have shown that "H. parasitica" is restricted to "Capsella bursa-pastoris" as a host plant. Like the other "Hyaloperonospora" species, "H. arabidopsidis" is highly specialized, and it is so far known with certainty only from "Arabidopsis thaliana" as a host plant. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis encodes 10 different noncytotoxic NLPs (HaNLPs) that do not cause necrosis. We discovered that these noncytotoxic NLPs, however, act as potent activators of the plant immune system in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ectopic expression of HaNLP3 in Arabidopsis triggered resistance to H. arabidopsidis, activated the expression of a large set of defense-related genes, and caused a reduction of plant growth that is typically associated with strongly enhanced immunity. N- and C-terminal deletions of HaNLP3, as well as amino acid substitutions, pinpointed to a small central region of the protein that is required to trigger immunity, indicating the protein acts as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP).
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