Synonyms for phylloxeridae or Related words with phylloxeridae
Examples of "phylloxeridae"
is family of Hemipterans closely related to aphids.
species are usually called Phylloxerans or Phylloxerids.
is placed together with Adelgidae in the superfamily Phylloxeroidea.
together with Adelgidae form the oviparous aphids group which is monophyletic and is sister group to Aphidoidea (other aphids).
family, some species are holocyclic meaning they produce both asexual and sexual generations while some are anholocyclic then producing only asexual generations.
is a small family of plant-parasitic hemipterans with only 75 described species. This group comprises two subfamilies (Phylloxerininae and Phylloxerinae) and 11 genera with one that is fossil. The genus type is Phylloxera.
is part of the order Hemiptera and suborder Sternorrhyncha. But there is a lot of controversy when it comes to its position and phylogeny within this lineage especially in regard to its relatives namely the Adelgids (Adelgidae) and Aphids (Aphididae). The following quote is an illustration: “Almost as many classiﬁcations of aphids have been proposed as there have been practicing taxonomists”. Aphids here include Adelgidae, Aphididae and
. In the past these three families mentioned above have been placed together in the same superfamily Aphidoidea.
Aphids, adelgids, and phylloxerids are very closely related, and are all within the suborder Sternorrhyncha, the plant-sucking bugs. They are either placed in the insect superfamily Aphidoidea or into the superfamily Phylloxeroidea which contains the family Adelgidae and the family
The Phylloxeroidea is a small superfamily of the Hemiptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea, which is the sister taxon. The two extant families are the pine and spruce aphids (Adelgidae, including the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae") and the phylloxerans (
), including Vine Phylloxera, a serious pest of grapes.
The hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera ("Phylloxera caryaecaulis") also uses the hickory tree as a food source.
are related to aphids and have a similarly complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls quickly form around the developing insects. "Phylloxera" galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are generally harmless.
Grape phylloxera ("Daktulosphaira vitifoliae" (Fitch 1855); family
, within the order Hemiptera, bugs); originally described in France as "Phylloxera vastatrix"; equated to the previously described "Daktulosphaira vitifoliae", "Phylloxera vitifoliae"; commonly just called phylloxera (; from Greek φύλλον, leaf, and ξερόν, dry) is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America.
However, most recent studies using both morphological and molecular data to discuss the phylogeny and evolutionary history within the Sternorrhyncha lineage suggest that representatives of Adelgidae, Aphididae and
have evolved independently and should not be combined in superfamilies. The debate is still open and more research is needed to clear the Sternorrhyncha phylogeny out.
The Phylloxeran species are very small to minute insects. Besides, there is a high polymorphism in the
family making it really hard sometimes to identify its members. Also, they can pretty easily be confused to related insects such as Adelgids and true Aphids. The most important features used to tell them apart from their relatives and from other insects are the wings’ venation, the ovipositor and some characteristics of their antennae.
The first record of species of the family was in Aphidoidea by Latreille, 1802. In 1857 Herrich-Schaeffer described the family and named this group ‘Phylloxeriden’. Lichtenstein, was the first to use the word ‘
’ in 1883. They have a worldwide distribution but seem to have originated from a moderate climate since they are more diverse in temperate climates and their adaptation to tropical life probably is of a secondary nature.
Excepting galls formed by the spruce gall midge, galls are caused by aphid-like insects of the family
(Adelgidae) commonly known as the spruce gall adelgids. They have complex life cycles, some species feeding exclusively on spruce, others feeding on spruce and an alternate conifer. However, galls characteristic of each species are formed only on spruce. Six generations are usually needed to complete the 2-year cycle, and in the case of species having an alternate host, winged adults about 2 mm long are formed only in the generations that move from one host to the other.
The Adelgidae is a small family of the Hemiptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea with the
. Adelgids are often known as "woolly conifer aphids". The family is composed of species associated with pine spruce or other conifers, known respectively as "pine aphids" or "spruce aphids". This family includes the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae", the name of which was declared invalid by the ICZN in 1955. There is still considerable debate as to the number of genera within the family, and the classification is still unstable and inconsistent among competing authors.
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