Synonyms for pingbo or Related words with pingbo
Examples of "pingbo"
(俞平伯) (January 8, 1900 – October 15, 1990), former name Yu Mingheng (俞銘衡) and courtesy name
(平伯), was an essayist, poet, historian, Redologist, and critic.
Yu Yue (; 18211907), courtesy name Yinfu, "hao" Quyuan, was a prominent scholar and official of Qing Dynasty China. An expert in philology and textual studies, he taught and wrote prolifically on the classics and histories. Yu
was his great-grandson; one of his most important disciples was Zhang Taiyan.
In 1923, Yu
published "Debating Dream of the Red Chamber" (紅樓夢辨 "Hónglóumèng Biàn"), giving evidence for his claim that only the first eighty chapters of the original "Dream of the Red Chamber" had been authored by Cao Xueqin, the later forty chapters being penned by Gao E. He thereby came to be known, along with Hu Shih, for establishing a new field in redological studies. These studies were not only important in developing an understanding of the text and its complexities, but in advancing the New Culture Movement's nationalistic project of using scientific methodology to replace old Chinese culture with a westernized version.
Tattler was founded primarily by the following literary circle: Liang Yuchun 梁遇春、Zhou Zuoren 周作人、Lu Xun 鲁迅、 Lin Yutang 林语堂、Qian Xuntong 钱玄同、Yu
俞平伯、Liu Bangnong 刘半农 and others, with Sun Fuyuan 孙伏园 as the editor. But Lu Xun actually was the prime mover. The Beiyang Government shut down the magazine after its 153rd issue October 15, necessitating a move to Shanghai. The 154th issue was published in Shanghai with Lu Xun as editor.
Redology () is the academic study of Cao Xueqin's "Dream of the Red Chamber", one of the Four Great Classical Novels of China. There are numerous researchers in this field; most can be divided into four general groups. The first group are the commentators, such as Zhou Chun, Xu Fengyi, Chen Yupi, and others. The second group is the index group, which mainly includes Wang Mengruan and Cai Yuanpei. The third group are the textual critics, including Hu Shi and Yu
. The final group are the literary critics. There are various researchers in this group, most notably Zhou Ruchang.
In the 1920s, Lu Xun (1881–1936) considered it necessary to reprint this novel. In a letter to Hu Shih (1891–1962) dated December 28, 1923, Lu suggested using the version before Yu Yue's editorship while including Yu's Chapter 1 as an appendix. The reprinting project was undertaken by Yu Yue's great-grandson Yu
(1900–1990), who nevertheless consulted his great-grandfather's version during his editorship. When East Asia Library (亞東圖書館) published the reprint in 1925, Hu wrote the preface and greatly praised the original. This reprint significantly revived the "The Three Heroes and Five Gallants" version.
In the 1920s, scholars and devoted readers developed "Hongxue", or Redology into both a scholarly field and a popular avocation. Among the avid readers was the young Mao Zedong, who later claimed to have read the novel five times and praised it as one of China's greatest works of literature. The influence of the novel's themes and style are evident in many modern Chinese prose works. The early 1950s was a rich period for Redology with publication of major studies by Yu
. Zhou Ruchang, who as a young scholar had come to the attention of Hu Shih in the late 1940s, published his first study in 1953, which became a best seller. But in 1954 Mao personally criticized Yu
for his "bourgeois idealism" in failing to emphasize that the novel exposed the decadence of "feudal" society and the theme of class struggle. In the Hundred Flowers Campaign, Yu came under heavy criticism but the attacks were so extensive and full of quotations from his work that they spread Yu's ideas to many people who would not otherwise have known of their existence.
Yu Pingbo's ancestry can be traced to Deqing, Zhejiang. His pet name as a child was Sengbao (僧寶). He was a descendant of Yu Yue, a renowned scholar during the late Qing period, and as such Yu
was trained in the Chinese classics from an early age. In 1915, he qualified by examination for a preparatory course at Peking University, where he became one of Hu Shih's most prominent students. In 1917, he married Xu Baoxun (許寶馴), a gifted female scholar from Hangzhou, and then commenced composing melodies for Kunqu operas. Meanwhile, he temporarily immersed himself in the New Culture Movement, and in 1918 his first New Culture period poem "Spring Waters" (春水 "Chūnshuĭ") was published alongside Lu Xun's Diary of a Madman in La Jeunesse, becoming one of the pioneering compositions to be written in contemporary Chinese vernacular. That same year, he established with classmates Fu Sinian, Luo Jialun and others the New Wave Society. Other intellectual friends or writers included Zhu Ziqing, Feng Youlan, and Ye Shengtao. He then went on to publish such compositions as the poem "Winter's Night" (冬夜 "Dōngyè"). Yu
graduated from Peking University in December, 1919. After graduation, Yu took a brief trip to Europe, and in 1922 spent an equally brief period in the United States, but found neither place attractive.
"La Jeunesse" published both poetry and drama in the vernacular. Hu Shih's "Marriage" 终身大事 was one of the first dramas written in the new literature style. Published in the March 1919 issue (Volume 6 Number 3), this one act play highlights the problems of traditional marriages arranged by parents. The woman protagonist eventually left her family to escape the marriage. Poetry include those by Li Dazao 李大钊﹑Chen Duxiu 陈独秀﹑Lu Xun 鲁迅﹑Zhou Zuoren 周作人﹑Yu
俞平伯﹑Kang Baiqing 康白情﹑Shen Jianshi 沈兼士﹑Shen Xuanlu 沈玄庐﹑Wang Jingzhi 汪静之﹑Chen Hengzhe 陈衡哲﹑Chen Jianlei 陈建雷 and others.
In 1921, Hu Shih published one of the most influential Redology essays in the modern era, "Proofs on A Dream of the Red Chamber" (红楼梦考证). In it Hu Shih proposed the hypothesis that the last forty chapters were not written by Cao Xueqin but were completed by Gao E. Hu Shih based his hypothesis on four pieces of evidence – though three of them were circumstantial and Hu Shih was himself uncertain of his second proof. He went on to accuse Cheng and Gao of being dishonest in their 1791 prefaces, stating direct evidence from a contemporary, Zhang Wentao (张问陶), that Gao was the author of the continuation. The conclusion, in Hu Shih's own words, was irrefutable (自无可疑) His stand was supported by Zhou Ruchang and Liu Xinwu. Another Redologist, Yu
, originally supported this proposition, but later retracted it.
Some believe that "Water Margin" was written entirely by Luo Guanzhong. Wang Daokun (汪道昆), who lived during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor in the Ming dynasty, first mentioned in "Classification of Water Margin" (水滸傳敘) that: "someone with the family name Luo, who was a native of Wuyue (Yue (a reference to the southern China region covering Zhejiang), wrote the 100-chapter novel." Several scholars from the Ming and Qing dynasties, after Wang Daokun's time, also pointed out that Luo was the author of "Water Margin". During the early Republican era, Lu Xun and Yu
suggested that the simplified edition of "Water Margin" was written by Luo, while the traditional version was by Shi Nai'an.
In the early 20th century, although the New Culture Movement took a critical view of the Confucian classics, the scholar Hu Shih used the tools of textual criticism to put the novel in an entirely different light, as a foundation for national culture. Hu and his students, Gu Jiegang and Yu
, first established that Cao Xueqin was the work's author. Taking the question of authorship seriously reflected a new respect for fiction, since the lesser forms of literature had not been traditionally ascribed to particular individuals. Hu next built on Cai Yuanpei's investigations of the printing history of the early editions to prepare reliable reading texts. The final, and in some respects most important task, was to study the vocabulary and usage of Cao's Beijing dialect as a basis for Modern Mandarin.
Meanwhile, a debate was raging as to whether to keep or to dismantle the remaining city walls. Architect Liang Sicheng was a leading advocate for keeping the walls. He recommended cutting more arches to accommodate new roads that would serve increased traffic needs, and suggested building a giant circum-city public park immediately outside the city walls and moats to beautify the environment. Pro-keep supporters included Redologist Yu
, then Department of Culture Vice Minister Zheng Zhenduo, and many Soviet city planners then in the country. The pro-keep contingent was silenced by political pressure, and by the end of the Great Leap Forward (1958–1961), the Outer city wall was completely dismantled and the Inner wall was halved in length.
Liang Shuming, Ye Shengtao, Feng Naichao, Bing Xin, Wang Zhaowen, Zong Baihua, Ji Xian|in, Cai Yi, Shen Congwen, Yu
, Yu Zhenfei, Ch'ien Chung-shu, Yang Jiang, Fei Xiaotong, Ai Qing, Ding Ling, Guo Shaoyu, Fung Yu-lan, Ba Jin, Ye Qianyu, Cheng Fangwu, Zhu Guangqian, Cao Yu, Wang Li, Jiang Zhaohe, Wang Geyi, Xiao Qian, Yao Xueyin, Yu Ling, Liu Kaiqu, Guan Shanyue, Wu Yinxian, Wu Guanzhong, Wu Zuoren, Li Keran, Liao Bingxiong, Xiao Jun, Nie Gannu, Yan Wenliang, Mao Dun, Zhao Puchu, Guan Liang, Li Xiongcai, Cheng Shifa, Shi Lu, Zhang Ding, Zhu Jizhan, Lu Shuxiang, Xiao Yan, Zhou Yang, Qian Songyan, Li Kuchan, Huang Zhou, Aisin-Gioro Pujie, Qi Gong, Fei Xinweo, Lu Yanshao, Sha Menghai, Qin Mu, Rong Geng, Cheng Fangwu, Yang Xianyi, Zhou Ruchang, Chen Daisun, Jin Yuelin, Hou Wailu, Hou Renzhi, Deng Guangming, Bian Zhilin, Leoh-Ming Pei, Chen-Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee, Yuan Tseh Lee, Wu Liangyong, Ouyang Zhongshi, A Lai, Zao Wou Ki, Zhong Nanshan, Pu Cunxin, Yuan Longping, Jackie Chen, Zhang Chaoyang, Yang Liwei, Yao Ming, etc.
Hawkes studied at Oxford until 1947, when he decided to move to China to continue his studies at Peking University. Hawkes was so determined that he booked passage on a ship to Hong Kong without having received notice of his acceptance. The Chinese scholar Hu Shih, who then served as university president, was notorious for ignoring correspondence, and Hawkes' plans were saved only when the British poet William Empson, who was the only foreigner at the university, noticed Hawkes' letters and arranged for him to be accepted as a graduate student. The university was located in downtown Beijing (later moved to Haidian District on the former site of Yenching University), and Hawkes lived in a rented room in a medieval "hutong" lane dwelling. He took courses in Chinese literature from noted scholars such as Luo Changpei and Yu
. Hawkes and his Chinese classmates were present in Tiananmen Square on 1 October 1949 to hear Mao Zedong announce the founding of the People's Republic of China following the Communist Party of China's defeat of Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist Party ("Kuomintang") in the Chinese Civil War.
In 1925 he took up post as a lecturer at Yenching University. In 1928 he went to Tsinghua University. In 1935, he founded the Tsinghua Valley Music Society (清華谷音社 "Qinghuá Gŭyīnshè") at Qinghuayuan (清華園, "Tsinghua Gardens") to popularise his Kunqu compositions. In 1946, he transferred to Peking University for the post of professor. In 1935, he entered the Classical Literature Research Unit (古典文學研究室 "Gŭdiăn Wénxué Yánjiūshì") at the Literary Research Institute (文學研究所 "Wénxué Yánjiūsuŏ") of the Chinese Academy of Science, there revising his old publication "Discussing Dream of the Red Chamber" and redistributing it under the title "Researching Dream of the Red Chamber" (紅樓夢研究 "Hónglóumèng Yánjiū"), in 1954, Mao Zedong personally launched a nationwide campaign criticising this work along with Hú Shì's "Reactionary Thought" (反動思想 "Făndòng Sīxiăng"), a major incident of the time. During the Cultural Revolution, Yu
was persecuted further, being sent to one of the so-called 'cadre schools' in Xi County, Henan for manual labour. On 15 October 1990, at ninety years of age, he died at the "Běijīng Sānlĭ Hénán Shāgōu Yùsuŏ" (北京三里河南沙溝寓所).
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