Synonyms for pmdd or Related words with pmdd

anorgasmia              premenstrual              dysphoria              hsdd              hyposalivation              dysphoric              fsad              oligoovulation              motn              sialorrhea              perimenopause              sleeplessness              obstipation              climacteric              somnolence              ptsd              perimenopausal              gravidarum              hypoestrogenism              osdb              llpdd              menopausal              neurasthenia              dysthymia              perimenstrual              bedwetting              asthenospermia              andropause              polymenorrhea              hypermenorrhea              hypersexuality              suicidality              coricosteroids              hypogeusia              schizophrenics              impotency              psychoneurosis              dyspeptic              orgasmic              osahs              impotence              hyperandrogenism              hyperemesis              anosmia              inappetance              pollakiuria              postmenopause              hyposexuality              postconcussion              symptons             

Examples of "pmdd"
In Australia, PMDD is recognized by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. However, SSRIs are not reimbursed for PMDD under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.
The etiology of PMDD is still an active area of research. While the timing of symptoms suggest a hormonal fluctuations as the cause of PMDD, a demonstrable hormonal imbalance in women with PMDD has not been identified. In fact, levels of reproductive hormones in women with and without PMDD are indistinguishable. It is instead hypothesized that women with PMDD are more sensitive to normal levels of hormone fluctuations, predominantly estrogen and progesterone which produces biochemical events in the nervous system that cause the premenstrual symptoms. These symptoms are more predominant in women who have a predisposition to the disorder.
Goldwind's initial use of the PMDD fully converted design came through its partner and eventual subsidiary VENSYS, with the VENSYS 62 which has been in operation since 2004. The PMDD design was integrated into the production of the 1.5MW PMDD wind turbines. Goldwind recently introduced the 2.5MW PMDD, which was designed to be lighter on a per-megawatt basis and even more cost efficient than the 1.5 MW variant. Currently, larger machines are under development that will be utilized for onshore and offshore locations.
Although some of the symptoms of PMDD and BPD are similar, they are different disorders. They are distinguishable by the timing and duration of symptoms, which are markedly different: the symptoms of PMDD occur only during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, whereas BPD symptoms occur persistently at all stages of the menstrual cycle. In addition, the symptoms of PMDD do not include impulsivity.
The symptoms in which coincide with mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, may worsen during the premenstrual period and thus may mimic PMDD. This phenomenon is known as premenstrual exacerbation (PME) and refers to the worsening of mood disorder symptoms during the premenstrual phase. An estimated 40% of women who seek treatment for PMDD are found to not have PMDD, but rather a PME of an underlying mood disorder.
There have been some nutritional supplements that have been shown to help alleviate the symptoms of PMDD. In 1998, a placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 720 women with PMDD found that calcium carbonate demonstrated up to a 50% reduction in symptoms, compared with a 30% reduction in the control group. Herbal treatments that have shown promise in PMDD include chasteberry ("Vitex agnus castus"), St. John's wort ("Hypericum perforatum"), and ginkgo ("Ginkgo biloba)". Studies have been conducted on the efficacy of chasteberry and gingko, but as of this writing, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted on the efficacy of St. John's wort in alleviating PMDD symptoms.
Up to 80% women report having some symptoms prior to menstruation. These symptoms qualify as PMS in 20 to 30% of pre-menopausal women. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a more severe form of PMS that has greater psychological symptoms. PMDD affects three to eight percent of pre-menopausal women. Antidepressant medication of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors class may be used in addition to usual measures for in PMDD.
PMDD again debated when it came to time to create the DSM-5 in 2008. In the end it was included as a formal category; a review in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry published in 2014 examined the arguments against inclusion, which it summarized as: "(1) the PMDD label will harm women economically, politically, legally, and domestically; (2) there is no equivalent hormonally based medical label for males; (3) the research on PMDD is faulty; (4) PMDD is a culture-bound condition; (5) PMDD is due to situational, rather than biological, factors; and (6) PMDD was fabricated by pharmaceutical companies for financial gain" and addressed each and found no evidence of harm, that no hormonally-driven disorder has been identified in men despite research seeking it; that the research base has matured; that PMDD has been identified worldwide; that a small minority of women do suffer from the condition; and that while there has been financial conflict of interest it has not made the research unusable. It concluded by noting that women have historically been under-treated and told that problems are "all in their heads", and that the formal diagnostic criteria would spur more funding, research, diagnosis and treatment for women who suffer from PMDD.
Medical personnel can avoid misdiagnosis by having women seeking treatment for PMDD use a daily charting method to record their symptoms. Daily charting helps distinguish when mood disturbances are experienced and allows PMDD to be distinguished from other mood disorders. With PMDD, mood symptoms are present only during the luteal phase, or last two weeks, of the menstrual cycle. While PMDD mood symptoms are of a cyclical nature, other mood disorders are variable or constant over time. Although the medical community lacks a consensus on the most efficient instrument by which to confirm a PMDD diagnosis, several well-validated scales for recording premenstrual symptoms include the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences (COPE), Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP), and Prospective Record of the Severity of Menstruation (PRISM).
Thus today many well-recognized health organizations in many parts of the world provide guides for the diagnosis of PMDD. As a historical footnote, early drafts of the ICD failed to recognize PMDD as a separate condition. In 2003, before the current ICD 10 guidelines, the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products required the manufacturer of Prozac (fluoxetine) to remove PMDD from the list of indications for fluoxetine sold in Europe. Reflecting an earlier approach by the ICD, the committee found in 2003 that PMDD was not a well-established disease entity across Europe, and noted "considerable concern that [people] with less severe pre-menstrual symptoms might erroneously receive a diagnosis of PMDD resulting in widespread inappropriate short and long-term use of fluoxetine."
Diagnostic criteria for PMDD are also provided by the 2016 World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-CM):
In addition to AXIS I disorders, several other medical illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and migraine disorder may present symptoms similar or identical to those of PMDD. Clinicians must distinguish between PMDD and other medical and/or psychiatric conditions.
Authoritative diagnostic criteria for PMDD are provided by a number of expert medical guides, notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM-V). The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," established seven criteria (A through G) for the diagnosis of PMDD.
Bipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and other Axis I disorders are more common in women with PMDD than in the general population. In women with PMDD, there is a 50-78% lifetime incidence of various psychiatric disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, seasonal affective disorder and major depressive disorder.
Although less studied, SNRIs have also shown benefit in PMDD. In a randomized, controlled clinical trial of women with PMDD, 60% of the women taking venlafaxine improved versus 35% on placebo. Improvement was noticed during the first treatment cycle with 80% symptom reduction.
Most supporters of PMS as a social construct believe PMDD and PMS to be unrelated issues: according to them, PMDD is a product of brain chemistry, and PMS is a product of a hypochondriatic culture. Most studies on PMS and PMDD rely solely on self-reporting. According to sociologist Carol Tavris, Western women are socially conditioned to expect PMS or to at least know of its existence, and they therefore report their symptoms accordingly. The anthropologist Emily Martin argues that PMS is a cultural phenomenon that continues to grow in a positive feedback loop, and thus is a social construction that contributes to learned helplessness or convenient excuse. Tavris says that PMS is blamed as an explanation for rage or sadness. The decision to call PMDD an illness has been criticized as inappropriate medicalization. In both cases, they are referring to the emotional aspects, not the normal physical symptoms that are subjectively present.
Mild PMS is common, and more severe symptoms would qualify as PMDD. PMS is not listed in the DSM-IV, unlike PMDD. To establish a pattern and determine if it is PMDD, a woman's physician may ask her to keep a prospective record of her symptoms on a calendar for at least two menstrual cycles. This will help to establish if the symptoms are, indeed, limited to the premenstrual time, predictably recurring, and disruptive to normal functioning. A number of standardized instruments have been developed to describe PMS, including the "Calendar of Premenstrual syndrome Experiences (COPE)", the "Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM)", and the "Visual Analogue Scales (VAS)".
Other organizations that have published diagnostic criteria for PMDD include the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the International Society for the Study of Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD). The ISPMD was a consensus group established by an international multidisciplinary group of experts. The group's diagnostic criteria for PMDD focuses on the cyclic nature of the symptom occurring during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, symptoms being absent after menstruation and before ovulation and causing significant impairment. The ISPMD diagnostic criteria for PMDD do not specify symptom characteristics or number of symptoms.
Various strong stances were taken in the discussion. For example, Sally Severino, a psychiatrist, argued that because PMDD symptoms were more prevalent in the US, it was a culture-bound syndrome and not a biological condition, and also said it was "an unnecessary pathologizing of cyclical changes in women." Jean Endicott, another psychiatrist and chair of the committee, has argued that it is a valid condition from which women suffer and should be diagnosed and treated, and has said: "If men had PMDD, it would have been studied a long time ago." In the end the committee kept PMDD in the appendix.
20-30% of women experience symptoms severe enough to meet PMS criteria and 3-8% of females who are of reproductive age meet the PMDD criteria.