Synonyms for postconcussion or Related words with postconcussion
Examples of "postconcussion"
For most patients with MTBI the cognitive, psychological, and psychosocial symptoms do not last longer than three to six months.. Those in which the symptoms persist longer may be diagnosed with
syndrome (Ruff, 2005).
Peter Gotti is imprisoned at the Elkton Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in Elkton, Ohio. His projected release date, if he survives, is May 5, 2032. During his last trial, lawyers stated that Peter Gotti was blind in one eye and suffered from thyroid goiter, sciatica, emphysema, rheumatoid arthritis,
syndrome, and depression.
The British Columbia
Symptom Inventory (BC-PSI), is a 16 item self-report inventory designed to measure both the frequency, and intensity of the ICD-10 criteria for Post concussion syndrome, which is a common occurrence in cases of mild traumatic brain injury. The (BC-PSI) asks the respondent to rate the severity of 13 symptoms rated on a six-point Likert-type rating scale that measures the frequency and intensity of each symptom in the past two weeks.
A slightly greater injury is associated with both anterograde and retrograde amnesia (inability to remember events before or after the injury). The amount of time that the amnesia is present correlates with the severity of the injury. In all cases the patients develop
syndrome, which includes memory problems, dizziness, tiredness, sickness and depression. Cerebral concussion is the most common head injury seen in children.
Post-concussion syndrome (PCS), is a set of symptoms that a person may experience for weeks, months, or occasionally years after a concussion with a prevalence rate of 38–80% in mild traumatic brain injuries, it may also occur in moderate and severe cases of traumatic brain injury. A diagnosis may be made when symptoms resulting from concussion, depending on criteria, last for more than three to six months after the injury, in which case it is termed persistent postconcussive syndrome (PPCS). In a study of the prevalence of post concussion syndrome symptoms in patients with depression utilizing the British Columbia
Symptom Inventory: "Approximately 9 out of 10 patients with depression met liberal self-report criteria for a
syndrome and more than 5 out of 10 met conservative criteria for the diagnosis." These self reported rates were significantly higher than those obtained in a scheduled clinical interview. Normal controls have exhibited symptoms of PCS as well as those seeking psychological services. There is considerable debate over the diagnosis of PCS in part because of the medico-legal and thus monetary ramifications of receiving the diagnosis.
Neuropsychological tests exist to measure deficits in cognitive functioning that can result from PCS. The Stroop Color Test and the 2&7 Processing Speed Test (which both detect deficits in speed of mental processing) can predict the development of cognitive problems from PCS. A test called the Rivermead
Symptoms Questionnaire, a set of questions that measure the severity of 16 different post-concussion symptoms, can be self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Other tests that can predict the development of PCS include the Hopkins Verbal Learning A test (HVLA) and the Digit Span Forward examination. The HVLA tests verbal learning and memory by presenting a series of words and assigning points based on the number recalled, and digit span measures attention efficiency by asking the examinee to repeat back digits spoken by the tester in the same order as they are presented. In addition, neuropsychological tests may be performed to detect malingering (exaggerating or making up symptoms) .
The symptoms that occur after a concussion have been described in various reports and writings for hundreds of years. The idea that this set of symptoms forms a distinct entity began to attain greater recognition in the latter part of the 19th century. John Erichsen, a surgeon from London, played an important role in developing the study of PCS. The controversy surrounding the cause of PCS began in 1866 when Erichsen published a paper about persisting symptoms after sustaining mild head trauma. He suggested that the condition was due to "molecular disarrangement" to the spine. The condition was originally called "railroad spine" because most of the injuries studied had happened to railroad workers. While some of his contemporaries agreed that the syndrome had an organic basis, others attributed the symptoms to psychological factors or to outright feigning. In 1879, the idea that a physical problem was responsible for the symptoms was challenged by Rigler, who suggested that the cause of the persisting symptoms was actually "compensation neurosis": the railroad's practice of compensating workers who had been injured was bringing about the complaints. Later, the idea that hysteria was responsible for the symptoms after a mild head injury was suggested by Charcot. Controversy about the syndrome continued through the 20th century. During World War I many soldiers suffered from puzzling symptoms after being close to a detonation but without any evidence of a head wound. The illness was called "shell shock," and a psychological explanation was eventually favoured. By 1934 the current concept of PCS had replaced ideas of hysteria as the cause of post-concussion symptoms. British authorities banned the term "shell shock" during World War II to avoid an epidemic of cases, and the term "posttrauma concussion state" was coined in 1939 to describe "disturbance of consciousness with no immediate or obvious pathologic change in the brain". The term "
syndrome" was in use by 1941.
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