Synonyms for postmenopause or Related words with postmenopause
Examples of "postmenopause"
Symptoms that may appear during menopause and continue through
The term "postmenopausal" describes women who have not experienced any menstrual flow for a minimum of 12 months, assuming that they have a uterus and are not pregnant or lactating. In women without a uterus, menopause or
can be identified by a blood test showing a very high FSH level. Thus
the time in a woman's life that take place after her last period or, more accurately, after the point when her ovaries become inactive.
, due to much lower levels of estrogen, and due to lower levels of GH and IGF-1, which decrease with age, mammary gland tissue atrophies and the mammary glands become smaller.
Any period-like flow during
, even spotting, must be reported to a doctor. The cause may be minor, but the possibility of endometrial cancer must be checked for.
Ovarian fibromas represent 4% of all ovarian neoplasms. They tend to occur mostly during perimenopause and
, the median age having been reported to be about 52 years, and they are rare in children. Lesions tend to be asymptomatic. If symptoms are present, the most common one is abdominal pain.
Estrogen is considered to play a significant role in women’s mental health. Sudden estrogen withdrawal, fluctuating estrogen, and periods of sustained estrogen low levels correlate with significant mood lowering. Clinical recovery from postpartum, perimenopause, and
depression has been shown to be effective after levels of estrogen were stabilized and/or restored.
Endometriosis can affect any female, from premenarche to
, regardless of race or ethnicity or whether or not they have had children. It is primarily a disease of the reproductive years. The number of women affected is between 6–10%. It is more common in women with infertility and chronic pelvic pain (35–50%).
The reason for this delay in declaring
is because periods are usually erratic at this time of life. Therefore, a reasonably long stretch of time is necessary to be sure that the cycling has ceased. At this point a woman is considered infertile; however, the possibility of becoming pregnant has usually been very low (but not quite zero) for a number of years before this point is reached.
Estrogen is considered to play a significant role in women’s mental health, with links suggested between the hormone level, mood and well-being. Sudden drops or fluctuations in, or long periods of sustained low levels of estrogen may be correlated with significant mood-lowering. Clinical recovery from depression postpartum, perimenopause, and
was shown to be effective after levels of estrogen were stabilized and/or restored.
During menopause, the amygdala, which controls emotion, and the prefrontal cortex, which regulates judgment, become more regular. Estrogens, a group of hormones including estradiol and estrone, are secreted by the ovaries and the secretion is regulated by leutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), both of which are produced by the pituitary gland. In women, estrogen levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle but reach a steady decline and then remain at low levels
It was estimated in 2006 that "3.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are related to alcohol drinking, resulting in 3.5% of all cancer deaths." A European study from 2011 found that one in 10 of all cancers in men and one in 33 in women were caused by past or current alcohol intake. The World Cancer Research Fund panel report "Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective" finds the evidence "convincing" that alcoholic drinks increase the risk of the following cancers: mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, colorectum (men), breast (pre- and
The menopausal transition, and
itself, is a natural change, not usually a disease state or a disorder. The main cause of this transition is the natural depletion and aging of the finite amount of oocytes (ovarian reserve). This process is sometimes accelerated by other conditions and is known to occur earlier after a wide range of gynecologic procedures such as hysterectomy (with and without ovariectomy), endometrial ablation and uterine artery embolisation. The depletion of the ovarian reserve causes an increase in circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels because there are fewer oocytes and follicles responding to these hormones and producing estrogen.
In 2006, an American Heart Association review of soy protein benefits indicated only weak confirmation for the cholesterol-lowering claim about soy protein. The panel also found soy isoflavones do not reduce
"hot flashes" in women, nor do isoflavones lower risk of cancers of the breast, uterus, or prostate. Among the conclusions, the authors stated, "In contrast, soy products such as tofu, soy butter, soy nuts, or some soy burgers should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular health."
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Menopause can be divided into early and late transition periods, also known as perimenopause and
. Each stage is marked by changes in hormonal patterns, which can induce menopausal symptoms. It is possible to induce menopause prematurely by surgically removing the ovary or ovaries (oophorectomy). This is often done as a consequence of ovarian failure, such as ovarian or uterine cancers. The most common side effects of the menopausal transition are: lack of sexual desire or libido, lack of sexual arousal, and vaginal dryness. The modification of women’s physiology can lead to changes in her sexual response, the development of sexual dysfunctions, and changes in her levels of sexual desire.
The most common treatment is hormone replacement therapy or estrogen therapy. Women using hormone therapy for at least two years have increased blood flow to the hippocampus and temporal lobe as compared to those who did not undergo therapy. These areas of the brain are key to memory. Also, women who do not undergo therapy have been found to have less metabolic activity in the posterior cingulate cortex, while those with estrogen therapy did not show a significant metabolic change. This is important as declines in cerebral metabolism occur in the early stages of Alzheimer's, as mentioned in "Causes". Women who had their uterus and ovaries removed for medical reasons and lost their gonadal hormones showed a decrease in short-term verbal (hippocampus) and working memories (pre-frontal cortex), yet with estrogen therapy the memory loss was prevented. Furthermore, those who have undertaken estrogen therapy have shown significantly higher scores on verbal memory, verbal fluency, and visual memory tasks as compared to those who did not undergo treatment. It is widely found that this treatment must be administered near to the onset of menopause as opposed to several years
, when hormone therapy can have detrimental effects on cognition.
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