Synonyms for presentism or Related words with presentism
Examples of "presentism"
If the mereological essentialist believes in
, this argument may fail. A person who believes in
believes that the present is the only relevantly true world. This view is a response to the problem of Qualitative Change.
Hare's theory of perspectival realism is closely related to his theory of egocentric
is the view that neither the future nor the past exist. In some versions of
, this view is extended to timeless objects or ideas (such as numbers). According to
, events and entities that are wholly past or wholly future do not exist at all.
contrasts with eternalism and the growing block theory of time which hold that past events, like the Battle of Waterloo, and past entities, like Alexander the Great's warhorse Bucephalus, really do exist, although not in the present. Eternalism extends to future events as well.
In literary and historical analysis,
is the anachronistic introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past. Some modern historians seek to avoid
in their work because they consider it a form of cultural bias, and believe it creates a distorted understanding of their subject matter. The practice of
is regarded by some as a common fallacy in historical writing.
Sider also gave an alternative definition that is compatible with
, using the tensed operators "WILL" and "WAS":
in classical spacetime deems that only the present exists; this is not reconcilable with special relativity, shown in the following example: Alice and Bob are simultaneous observers of event "O". For Alice, some event "E" is simultaneous with "O", but for Bob, event "E" is in the past or future. Therefore, Alice and Bob disagree about what exists in the present, which contradicts classical
" attempts to reconcile this by only acknowledging the time and space of a single point; this is unsatisfactory because objects coming and going from the "here-now" alternate between real and unreal, in addition to the lack of a privileged "here-now" that would be the "real" present. "Relativized
" acknowledges that there are infinite frames of reference, each of them has a different set of simultaneous events, which makes it impossible to distinguish a single "real" present, and hence either all events in time are real—blurring the difference between
and eternalism—or each frame of reference exists in its own reality. Options for
in special relativity appear to be exhausted, but Gödel and others suspect
may be valid for some forms of general relativity.
There are two principal varieties of the A-theory,
and the growing block universe. Both assume an objective present, but
assumes that only present objects exist, while the growing block universe assumes both present and past objects exist, but not future ones. Ideas that assume no objective present, like the B-theory, include eternalism and four-dimensionalism.
is a weak form of solipsism introduced by Caspar Hare in which other persons can be conscious, but their experiences are simply not "present".
The use of terms such as tomorrow, now and future are part an a-series view which is part of the
philosophy of time.
A centered world, according to David Kellogg Lewis, consists of (1) a possible world, (2) an agent in that world, and (3) a time in that world. The concept of centered worlds has epistemic as well as metaphysical uses; for the latter, the three components of a centered world have connections to theories such as actualism, solipsism (especially egocentric
and perspectival realism), and
In the philosophy of time,
is the belief that only the present exists, and the future and past are unreal. Past and future "entities" are construed as logical constructions or fictions. The opposite of
is 'eternalism', which is the belief that things in the past and things yet to come exist eternally. Another view (not held by many philosophers) is sometimes called the 'growing block' theory of time—which postulates that the past and present exist, but the future does not.
The concept of perverse
is often taught in Queer Studies classes at universities. This is the understanding that LGBT history cannot and should not be analyzed through contemporary perspectives.
Focused on the theme of “History," issue 2 features included a 50-year time capsule co-created by readers and staff, the concept of
, and an interview with artist Christian Tagliavini, whose work was featured on the cover.
David Chalmers has written a response to Hellie. Hellie's argument is also closely related to Caspar Hare's theories of egocentric
and perspectival realism, of which several other philosophers have written reviews.
is also a factor in the problematic question of history and moral judgments. Among historians, the orthodox view may be that reading modern notions of morality into the past is to commit the error of
. To avoid this, historians restrict themselves to describing what happened and attempt to refrain from using language that passes judgment. For example, when writing history about slavery in an era when the practice was widely accepted, letting that fact influence judgment about a group or individual would be presentist and thus should be avoided.
The "Oxford English Dictionary" gives the first citation for "
" in its historiographic sense from 1916, and the word may have been used in this meaning as early as the 1870s. The historian David Hackett Fischer identifies
as a fallacy also known as the "fallacy of "nunc pro tunc"". He has written that the "classic example" of
was the so-called "Whig history", in which certain eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British historians wrote history in a way that used the past to validate their own political beliefs. This interpretation was presentist because it did not depict the past in objective historical context but instead viewed history only through the lens of contemporary Whig beliefs. In this kind of approach, which emphasizes the relevance of history to the present, things that do not seem relevant receive little attention, which results in a misleading portrayal of the past. "Whig history" or "whiggishness" are often used as synonyms for "
" particularly when the historical depiction in question is teleological or triumphalist.
Ludlow's first book, "Semantics, Tense, and Time", was devoted to arguing that
, a metaphysical thesis that denies the reality of past and future events, is consistent with the intuitive truth of much of our tensed discourse. More recently, he has argued that while tense is an ineliminable feature of reality, the resulting position (called "tensism") does not force us to be presentists.
The historian's fallacy is an informal fallacy that occurs when one assumes that decision makers of the past viewed events from the same perspective and having the same information as those subsequently analyzing the decision. It is not to be confused with
, a mode of historical analysis in which present-day ideas (such as moral standards) are projected into the past.
The growing block view is an alternative to both eternalism (according to which past, present, and future all exist) and
(according to which only the present exists). It is held to be closer to common-sense intuitions than the alternatives. C. D. Broad was a proponent of the theory (1923). Some modern defenders are Michael Tooley (in 1997) and Peter Forrest (in 2004).
Arthur Prior has argued against un-tensed theories with the following ideas: the meaning of statements such as "Thank goodness that's over" is much easier to see in a tensed theory with a distinguished, present "now". Similar arguments can be made to support the theory of egocentric
(or perspectival realism), which holds that there is a distinguished, present "self".
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