Synonyms for proestrus or Related words with proestrus

diestrus              metestrus              proestrous              oophorectomized              ovulating              anestrus              prepubertal              nulliparous              nonpregnant              estrous              pseudopregnancy              diestrous              pubertal              neonatally              superovulated              multiparous              estrogenized              gilts              premenopause              postpubertal              castrated              ovulatory              nonlactating              proceptivity              ovariectomized              parous              gonadectomized              peripubertal              menarche              vasectomised              postmenopause              superovulation              subfertility              hypogonadal              periovulatory              premenopausal              luteal              ovulated              ovulate              coitus              luteinization              decidualization              primiparous              ovsynch              gametogenesis              hysterectomised              naglazymeenzyme              ovariectomy              anovulatory              anoestrus             

Examples of "proestrus"
During proestrus and estrus, females may have a clear to bloody discharge. This stage is also known as "heat." The length of these cycles varies greatly between individuals. Proestrus and estrus can last anywhere from 5 days to 21 days.
For several days before estrus, a phase called proestrus, the bitch may show greater interest in male dogs and "flirt" with them (proceptive behavior). There is progressive vulval swelling and some bleeding. If males try to mount a bitch during proestrus, she may avoid mating by sitting down or turning round and growling or snapping.
The first stage of the reproductive cycle is proestrus, in which eggs in the ovaries begin to mature and estrogen levels begin to rise. During this stage males are attracted to non-receptive females. Initially, the vulva lips will swell up and become pliable and there will be small amounts of bloody vaginal discharge along with signs of frequent urination and restlessness. Proestrus generally lasts 9 days.
Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) has long been considered as a sexually dimorphic nucleus. It is an important region for regulating the sexual responses in female rodents. The neurons within VMN have significant estrogen-dependent functional and structural plasticity. The synaptic organization of the VMN is sexually dimorphic. Females have more dendrite chemical synapses within VMN while males have more somatic synapses within that region. In addition, the size of postsynaptic densities of axospinous and axosomatic synapses is sexually dimorphic, with males having larger density than females. Estrogen plays an important role in modulating the sexually dimorphic synaptic connectivity of VMN. Estradiol levels are high on proestrus rats and return to low levels on diestrus rats. The volume of cell bodies within VMN in proestrus rats and male rats is larger than diestrus rats. Also, proestrus rats have significantly higher synapse density in VMN than diestrus rats. Moreover, Gamma-aminobutyric acid plays a role in VMN development such as sexual differentiation.
A set of follicles starts to develop near the end of proestrus and grows at a nearly constant rate until the beginning of the subsequent estrus when the growth rates accelerate eightfold. Ovulation occurs about 109 hours after the start of follicle growth.
A female dog is diestrous and goes into heat typically twice every year, although some breeds typically have one or three cycles a year. The proestrus is relatively long at 5–7 days (9 days), while the estrus may last 4–13 days, with a diestrus of 60 days followed by about 90–150 days of anestrus. Female dogs bleed during estrus, which usually lasts from 7–13 days, depending on the size and maturity of the dog. Ovulation occurs 24–48 hours after the luteinizing hormone peak, which is somewhere around the fourth day of estrus; therefore, this is the best time to begin breeding. Proestrus bleeding in dogs is common and is believed to be caused by diapedesis of red blood cells from the blood vessels due to the increase of the estradiol-17β hormone.
Buffaloes have an estrous cycle of about 22–24 days. Buffaloes are known for difficult estrous detection. This is one major reason for being less productive than cows. During four phases of its estrous cycle, mean weight of corpus luteum has been found to be 1.23±0.22 (metestrus), 3.15±0.10 (early diestrus), 2.25±0.32 (late diestrus) and 1.89±0.31g (proestrus/estrus), respectively. The plasma progesterone concentration was 1.68±0.37, 4.29±0.22, 3.89±0.33 and 0.34±0.14 ng/ml while mean vascular density (mean number of vessels/10 microscopic fields at 400x) in corpus luteum was 6.33±0.99, 18.00±0.86, 11.50±0.76 and 2.83±0.60 during the metestrus, early diestrus, late diestrus and proestrus/estrus, respectively.
Gould and her colleagues found that the ovarian steroid estrogen enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. This effect can be seen following ovariectomy and hormone replacement as well as under naturally occurring changes in hormone levels. They discovered that cell proliferation peaks during proestrus, a time when estrogen levels are highest. Also and conversely, steroid hormones of the adrenal glands were found to inhibit cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus but do so indirectly via an NMDA receptor-dependent mechanism.
By the pubertal stage, the mammary ducts have invaded to the end of the mammary fat pad. At this point, the terminal end buds become less proliferative and decrease in size. Side branches form from the primary ducts and begin to fill the mammary fat pad. Ductal development decreases with the arrival of sexual maturity and undergoes estrous cycles (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus). As a result of estrous cycling, the mammary gland undergoes dynamic changes where cells proliferate and then regress in an ordered fashion.
Variation in estrogen can lead to increased levels of OCD symptoms within women as well. The disorder itself has a later onset in women, and tends to show two distinct peaks of onset. The first peak occurs around puberty and the second around the age of childbearing. These peaks correlate with time periods where estrogen levels are highest in women. Studies within rats further investigated this correlation, finding that OCD behavior varied during the estrous cycle, being highest at late diestrus and proestrus when estrogen levels are highest, and lowest after estrogen has decreased. in addition, women with OCD have reported changes in the intensity and occurrences of their symptoms during their premenstrual and menstrual period, after pregnancy, and following menopause. Research found that the absence of estrogen in ArKO female mice decreased barbering (cleaning), wheel running, and grooming tendencies associated with OCD behavior. This correlates with other findings that increased levels of estrogen increase OCD behaviors in females.
Oestrogen peaks at about 11 am on the day of proestrus. Between then and midnight there is a surge in progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, and ovulation occurs at about 4 am on the next, estrus day. The following day, metestrus, is called early diestrus or diestrus I by some authors. During this day the corpora lutea grow to a maximal volume, achieved within 24 hours of ovulation. They remain at that size for three days, halve in size before the metestrus of the next cycle and then shrink abruptly before estrus of the cycle after that. Thus the ovaries of cycling rats contain three different sets of corpora lutea at different phases of development.