Synonyms for prolactinoma or Related words with prolactinoma
Examples of "prolactinoma"
Based on size, a
can be classified as a "microprolactinoma" (<10 mm diameter) or "macroprolactinoma" (>10 mm diameter).
is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. It is the most common type of functioning pituitary tumor. Symptoms of
are too much prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia), or those caused by pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues.
At one time, oral contraceptives were thought to contribute to the development of prolactinomas. However, this is no longer thought to be true. Patients with
treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline may also take oral contraceptives. Likewise, post-menopausal estrogen replacement is safe in patients with
treated with medical therapy or surgery.
The symptoms due to a
are broadly divided into those that are caused by increased prolactin levels or mass effect.
Baker has written numerous books. In 2001, Baker published "Man Made: A Memoir of My Body" which tells the story of his battle with a
High-dose CPA in combination with estrogen has been associated with a dramatically (400-fold) increased incidence of hyperprolactinemia in transgender women. Estrogen alone has been associated only with single case reports of
in this population.
Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a
, a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
The xenoestrogenic chemical Bisphenol-A has been shown to lead to hyperprolactinaemia and growth of prolactin-producing pituitary cells. The increasing and prolonged exposure of Bisphenol-A from childhood on, may contribute to the growth of a
Evidence indicates that the mechanism of hyperpituitarism can originate from genetic disruption causing pituitary tumorigenesis,most pituitary adenomas are monoclonal, which in turn indicates their origin from an event in a single cell. There are three hormones that are oversecreted resulting in the pituitary adenoma: prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and growth hormone (GH). Excess prolactin may result in a
Excess GH results in gigantism, the severity of gigantism depends on whether the epiphyseal plate is open. The four most common types of hyperpituitarism are
, corticotropinoma (Cushing's disease), somatotropinoma (gigantism), and thyrotropinoma .
In January 2016, Palmer-Tomkinson was diagnosed with a
, a benign tumour (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, and announced her illness publicly in November of that year. Prolactinomas are non-malignant, and treatment was successful. She also suffered from ANCA Associated Vasculitis. She never married nor had children.
Pickardt's syndrome may cause difficulties in differential diagnosis of pituitary adenomas, as both suprasellar hormone-inactive adenomas and prolactinomas may be associated with increased prolactin levels, central hypgogonadism and central hypothyroidism. Usually, the prolactin levels are higher in case of a true
, but the concentration ranges overlap.
Testicular tumors such as Leydig cell tumors or Sertoli cell tumors (such as in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome) or hCG-secreting choriocarcinoma may result in gynecomastia. Other tumors such as adrenocortical tumors, pituitary gland tumors (such as a
), or bronchogenic carcinoma, can produce hormones that alter the male–female hormone balance and cause gynecomastia.
or other tumours arising in or near the pituitary — such as those that cause acromegaly may block the flow of dopamine from the brain to the prolactin-secreting cells, likewise, division of the pituitary stalk or hypothalamic disease. Other causes include chronic renal failure, hypothyroidism, bronchogenic carcinoma and sarcoidosis. Some women with polycystic ovary syndrome may have mildly-elevated prolactin levels.
Estrogens can also cause prolactinomas. Milk discharge from the nipples can be a sign of elevated prolactin levels. If a
becomes large enough, it can cause visual changes (especially decreased peripheral vision), headaches, depression or other mood changes, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and symptoms of pituitary failure, like hypothyroidism.
If a woman has one or more small
, there is no reason that she cannot conceive and have a normal pregnancy after successful medical therapy. The pituitary enlarges and prolactin production increases during normal pregnancy in women without pituitary disorders. Women with prolactin-secreting tumors may experience further pituitary enlargement and must be closely monitored during pregnancy. However, damage to the pituitary or eye nerves occurs in less than one percent of pregnant women with
. In women with large tumors, the risk of damage to the pituitary or eye nerves is greater, and some doctors consider it as high as 25%. If a woman has completed a successful pregnancy, the chances of her completing further successful pregnancies are extremely high.
A woman with a
should discuss her plans to conceive with her physician, so she can be carefully evaluated prior to becoming pregnant. This evaluation will include a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to assess the size of the tumor and an eye examination with measurement of visual fields. As soon as a patient is pregnant, her doctor will usually advise that she stop taking bromocriptine or cabergoline, the common treatments for
. Most endocrinologists see patients every two months throughout the pregnancy. The patient should consult her endocrinologist promptly if she develops symptoms — in particular, headaches, visual changes, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst or urination, or extreme lethargy. Bromocriptine or cabergoline treatment may be renewed and additional treatment may be required if the patient develops symptoms from growth of the tumor during pregnancy.
Roxindole (EMD-49,980) is a dopaminergic and serotonergic drug which was originally developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. In clinical trials its antipsychotic efficacy was only modest but it was unexpectedly found to produce potent and rapid antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. As a result, roxindole was further researched for the treatment of depression instead. It has also been investigated as a therapy for Parkinson's disease and
Pituitary adenomas are seen in 10% of neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, to which patients generally respond well. The most common subtype,
, is seen more often in women, and is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy as the hormone progesterone increases its growth. Medical therapy with cabergoline or bromocriptine generally suppresses prolactinomas; progesterone antagonist therapy has not proven to be successful.
Treatment (for hyperpituitarism) in the case of
consists of long-term medical management. Dopamine agonists are strong suppressors of PRL secretion and establish normal gonadal function. It also inhibits tumor cell replication (in some cases causes tumor shrinkage) Treatment for gigantism begins with establishing target goals for IGF-1,transsphenoidal surgery (somatostatin receptor ligands- preoperatively) and postoperative imaging assessment. For Cushing's disease there is surgery to extract the tumor; after surgery, the gland may slowly start to work again, though not always.
The goal of treatment is to return prolactin secretion to normal, reduce tumor size, correct any visual abnormalities, and restore normal pituitary function. As mentioned above, the impact of stress should be ruled out before the diagnosis of
is given. Exercise can significantly reduce stress and, thereby, prolactin levels. In the case of very large tumors, only partial reduction of the prolactin levels may be possible.
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