Synonyms for proskynesis or Related words with proskynesis
Examples of "proskynesis"
(; Greek ) refers to the traditional Persian act of bowing or prostrating oneself before a person of higher social rank. In the Eastern Orthodox Church the term "
" is used theologically to indicate the veneration given to icons and relics of the saints; as distinguished from "latria", the adoration which is due to God alone, and also physical gestures such as bowing or kneeling (genuflection in the Western church) before an altar or icon.
The recto side shows Dirk kneeling and Hildegard lying in
before Adalbert, the partron saint of the abbey, who pleads on their behalf to a Christ in Majesty. The accompany text reads:
When Alexander was trying to show that he is divine so that the Greeks and Macedonians would perform
to him, Anaxarchus said that Alexander could "more justly be considered a god than Dionysus or Heracles" (Arrian, 104)
Similarly, the emperor was hailed no longer as "Imp(erator)" on coins, which meant "commander in chief" but as "D(ominus) N(oster)" - "Our Lord." With the conversion of Constantine I to Christianity,
became part of an elaborate ritual, whereby the emperor became God's vice-regent on earth. Titular inflation also affected the other principal offices of the Empire. Justinian and Theodora both insisted on an extreme form of
, even from members of the Roman Senate, and they were attacked for it by Procopius in his "Secret History".
The book describes the major incidents of Alexander's later career, such as his conquest of Bactria, the controversy over Alexander's adoption of Persian customs like
, his abortive invasion of India, his marriage to Roxana, his crossing of the Gedrosian Desert, the death of Hephaistion and his own final illness and death.
By 330, Alexander had started to adopt elements of Persian royal dress. In 327 he introduced
a ritualized honor accorded by Persians to their rulers. This Greek soldiers resisted, as such prostrations were reserved for honoring the gods. They considered this blasphemy on Alexander's part and sure to bring condemnation from the gods.
The cult spread over the whole Empire within a few decades, more strongly in the east than in the west. Emperor Diocletian further reinforced it when he demanded the "
" and adopted the adjective "sacrum" for all things pertaining to the imperial person.
Demetrius son of Pythonax, surnamed Pheidon, was one of the Hetairoi of Alexander. In 327 BC, when the King attempted to introduce
, Demetrius is alleged to have alerted Alexander to Callisthenes' opposition. He is described as a flatterer of Alexander.
The earliest literary evidence of "
" before images comes from the first half of the 6th century; it had already been common before the cross by the end of the 4th century. The lighting of candles before images, and leaving lit candles and lamps (going beyond what might merely be necessary to actually see them) is mentioned in 6th century sources.
After his conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great introduced Persian etiquette into his own court, including the practice of
. Visitors, depending on their ranks, would have to prostrate themselves, bow to, kneel in front of, or kiss the king. His Greek countrymen objected to this practice, as they considered these rituals only suitable to the gods.
Court ceremonial highlights symbolic distance between a royal/imperial leader and follower, in a hierarchical system which cultivates a social system and power network at whose centre is the monarch. Bowing and curtseying remain as examples of the self-abasement of hand-sucking, bowing and scraping, prostration, kowtowing and "
" formerly demanded.
The Armenian king and his family, who were bound with golden chains, had to follow Antony in his triumphal procession. Cleopatra VII of Egypt awaited the triumvir on a golden throne, but Artavasdes II refused to render homage to the Egyptian Queen by
This may have led some Greeks to believe that the Persians worshipped their king as a god, the only Persian that received
from everyone, and other misinterpretations caused cultural conflicts. Alexander the Great proposed this practice during his lifetime, in adapting to the customs of the Persian cities he conquered, but it failed to find acceptance amongst his Greek companions (an example can be found in the court historian, Callisthenes) - and in the end, he did not insist on the practice.
In the Byzantine Rite, most widely observed in the Orthodox Church, genuflection plays a smaller role and prostration, known as "
", is much more common. During the holy mystery of reconciliation, however, following confession of sins, the penitent is to genuflect with head bowed before the Gospel Book or an icon of Christ as the confessor - either a bishop or a presbyter - formally declares God's forgiveness.
The work was refuting a bad copy of a very incompetent translation of the Byzantine decrees. In particular it seems clear that at least one negative was omitted, reversing the sense of the Greek, and that the Greek word
was mistranslated as "adoration", for which the Greek word is "latria", which the Council had stated, in the invariable position shared by Catholics and Orthodox, was due only to the persons of the Trinity.
According to Herodotus in his "Histories", a person of equal rank received a kiss on the lips, someone of a slightly lower rank gave a kiss on the cheek, and someone of a very inferior social standing had to completely bow down to the other person before them. To the Greeks, giving
to a mortal seemed to be a barbaric and ludicrous practice. They reserved such submissions for the gods only.
During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of "
", either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their social superiors. The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it.
During the first years of Alexander's campaign in Asia, Callisthenes showered praises upon the Macedonian conqueror. As the king and army penetrated further into Asia, however, Callisthenes' tone began to change. He began to sharply criticize Alexander's adoption of Persian customs, with special scorn for Alexander's growing desire that those who presented themselves before him perform the servile ceremony of
, a physical act of submission. In the end, Alexander did not continue the practice.
In 497 John the Scythian killed Longinus of Cardala and Athenodorus, whose heads were exposed on a spear in Tarsus, thus effectively ending the war. In 498, John Gibbo captured the last enemy leaders, Longinus of Selinus and Indes, and sent them to the Emperor, who paraded them along the main road of Constantinople to the Hippodrome, where they had to perform the "
" in front of the imperial "kathisma".
Alexander was a legend during his own time. In a now-lost history of the king, the historical Callisthenes described the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in
. Writing after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. (According to Plutarch, when Onesicritus read this passage to his patron Lysimachus, one of Alexander's generals who later became a king himself, Lysimachus quipped "I wonder where I was at the time.")
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