Synonyms for puinave or Related words with puinave
Examples of "puinave"
, Waipunavi (Guaipunabi) or Wanse (Wãnsöhöt), is a poorly attested and generally unclassified language of South America.
is sometimes linked to other poorly attested languages of the region in various Macro-Puinavean proposals, but no good evidence has ever been produced. The original motivation seems to simply be that all of these languages were called "Maku" "babble" by Arawakans. Ongoing work on
by Girón Higuita at the University of Amsterdam will hopefully clarify the situation.
Rivet (from 1920), Kaufman (1994) and Pozzobon (1997) include
within the family. However, many of the claimed cognate sets are spurious.
Macro-Puinavean is a hypothetical proposal linking some very poorly attested languages to the Nadahup family. The
language is sometimes linked specifically with the Nadahup languages ( "Maku"), as
–Maku, and the Maku language of Roraima is sometimes connected to the Arutani–Sape languages (yet again also known as "Maku") in a "Kalianan" branch, a connection which Kaufman (1990) finds "promising", but there is too little data on these languages to know for sure. Hodï has been proposed specifically as a sister of
These mountains are considered one of the main tourist sites in the Department of Guainía and are located within a
The municipality of Cumaribo has some 38 indigenous reserves. The indigenous are predominantly the Guahibo people, Curripaco and Piapoco peoples pertaining to the Arawak language family, and the Cuiva, Desana,
and Saliva peoples.
Epps (2008) criticizes the
–Nadahup proposal for relying on inaccurate data, having no clear concept of basic vocabulary, and using an unsystematic mix of Nadahup languages in the comparison. The languages were originally linked simply because they are all called "Maku" "babble" by Arawakans; that is, because they are spoken by hunter-gatherers, and since then some linguists have attempted to verify the connection by finding cognates. However, no convincing cognates have yet been found. For example, Rivet and Tastevin claim that the Hup pronoun "am" "I" corresponds to
"am" "I", but the Hup pronoun "’am" means "you"; the Hup pronoun for "I" is "’ãh". Other "strikingly similar" pairs, such as
"ueyu" "day" and Hup "uerhó" ("") "sun", are not particularly convincing, and no regular sound correspondences have been detected.
2006. (with Jesus Mario Girón) ‘Tone in Wãnsöhöt (
), Colombia’, W. Leo Wetzels (ed.), Language Endangerment and Endangered Languages: Linguistic and Anthropological Studies with Special Emphasis on the Languages and Cultures of the Andean-Amazonian Border Area. Indigenous Languages of Latin America series (ILLA). Publications of the Research School of Asian African, and Amerindian Studies (CNWS). Leiden University, The Netherlands: 129-156.
Girón Higuita, J.M. and W. Leo Wetzels (2007). Tone in Wãnsöhöt (
). "Language Endangerment and Endangered Languages: Linguistic and Anthropological Studies with Special Emphasis on the Languages and Cultures of the Andean-Amazonian Border Area," W. Leo Wetzels ed., CNWS Publications.
distinguishes four surface (phonetic) tones: two simple (H and L) and two contour (HL and LH); these are analyzed as being composed of two phonemic tone values, H and L. Girón Higuita and Wetzels (2007) note that speakers seem to associate H with prominence, rather than increased duration or intensity (the typical correlates of prominence in languages like English).
Although many Colombian indigenous languages have disappeared since colonial times, there are still more than 60 languages in Colombia, classified into 10 linguistic families: Chibcha, Arawak, Caribe, Quichua, Tukano, Guahibo, Makú-
, Witoto-Bora, Sáliba, and Chocó. Currently, the Chibcha family has languages from Santa Marta: Arhuaco, kogui, Wiwa, Tunebo, Motilone, Chimila and Cuna, but it used to be believed that Nasa Yuwe was part of the Chibcha family.
During his long stay in South America, he trekked the inner jungles of Colombia where he stayed with the
tribes, (the Ant-men) and the Yanomami and Pemone tribes of the Venezuelan-Brazilian border region. What he learnt during his stay with these primitive cultures with their uncontaminated moral and behavioural ethics, led him to compare norms and customs of cultures not integrated in what the first world would define as modern society. With new insight he finished his self-appointed project to compile a code of unwritten Romas laws.
Guainía (; Yuri language: "Land of many waters") is a department of Colombia. It is in the east of the country, bordering Venezuela and Brazil. Its capital is Inírida. In 1963 Guainía was split off from Vaupés department. The northern part and the Inírida River are included in the Orinoco basin; the rest is part of the Amazon basin. The Guaviare River is the main area of colonization, many "colonos" come from the Colombian Andean zone, most of them from Boyacá. They are followed by the "llaneros", people from the Eastern plains (Los Llanos). The main population is composed by Amerindians, the largest ethnic groups are the "Puinaves" (from the "makú-
" family) and the "curripacos" (from the "Arawak" family). There are a total of 24 ethnic groups in the department, many of them speak four Indian languages besides Spanish and Portuguese.
The number of phonemically distinct vowels can be as low as two, as in Ubykh and Arrernte. At the other extreme, the Bantu language Ngwe has 14 vowel qualities, 12 of which may occur long or short, making 26 oral vowels, plus 6 nasalized vowels, long and short, making a total of 38 vowels; while !Xóõ achieves 31 pure vowels, not counting its additional variation by vowel length, by varying the phonation. As regards consonant phonemes,
and the Papuan language Tauade each have just seven, and Rotokas has only six. !Xóõ, on the other hand, has somewhere around 77, and Ubykh 81. The English language uses a rather large set of 13 to 21 vowel phonemes, including diphthongs, although its 22 to 26 consonants are close to average.
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