Synonyms for scientism or Related words with scientism
Examples of "scientism"
may refer to science applied "in excess". The term "
" can apply in either of two senses:
Characteristic ideas of the modern project include individualism, liberalism, marxism, mechanism, rationalism,
, secularism, and subjectivism.
Standard dictionary definitions include the following applications of the term "
Reviewing the references to
in the works of contemporary scholars, Gregory R. Peterson detects two main broad themes:
Gregory R. Peterson writes that "for many theologians and philosophers,
is among the greatest of intellectual sins".
is the approach that the empirical sciences are the most valuable branches of learning and culture.
Schumacher argues that if materialistic
grows to dominate science even further, then there will be three negative consequences:
Philosopher Daniel Dennett responded to religious criticism of his book "" by saying that accusations of
"[are] an all-purpose, wild-card smear... When someone puts forward a scientific theory that [religious critics] really don't like, they just try to discredit it as '
'. But when it comes to facts, and explanations of facts, science is the only game in town".
He notes that for anyone who views the world through materialistic
this talk of higher perception is meaningless. For a scientist who believes in materialistic
, higher levels of being "simply do not exist, because his faith excludes the possibility of their existence."
For social theorists in the tradition of Max Weber, such as Jürgen Habermas and Max Horkheimer, the concept of
relates significantly to the philosophy of positivism, but also to the cultural rationalization of the modern West. British writer and feminist thinker Sara Maitland has called
a "myth as pernicious as any sort of fundamentalism."
Michael Shermer, founder of The Skeptics Society, draws a parallel between
and traditional religious movements, pointing to the cult of personality that develops around some scientists in the public eye. He defines
as a worldview that encompasses natural explanations, eschews supernatural and paranormal speculations, and embraces empiricism and reason.
Thomas M. Lessl argues that religious themes persist in what he calls
, the public rhetoric of science. There are two methodologies that illustrate this idea of
. One is the epistemological approach, the assumption that the scientific method trumps other ways of knowing and the ontological approach, that the rational mind reflects the world and both operate in knowable ways. According to Lessl, the ontological approach is an attempt to "resolve the conflict between rationalism and skepticism". Lessl also argues that without
, there would not be a scientific culture.
The term "
" is also used by historians, philosophers, and cultural critics to highlight the possible dangers of lapses towards excessive reductionism in all fields of human knowledge.
Some Greens refer to productivism, consumerism and
as "grey", as contrasted with "green", economic views. "Grey" implies age, concrete, and lifelessness.
Both critics of philosophical naturalism and champions of scientific method often decry positions like this as "
", a frequent target of C.S. Lewis, especially in his book "The Abolition of Man" (1943), often cited by Christian apologists today. Lewis regards the position of
as dehumanizing and reductionistic.
has been similarly criticized by William Lane Craig, who regards it as self-refuting in the sense that the validity of science cannot itself be proven scientifically. Even non-religious evolutionary biologist H. Allen Orr (a frequent critic of New Atheist writers) has commended Stephen Jay Gould for opposing the view that "all truths are ultimately scientific". Orr writes "The world is not all science and there are places where science cannot and even should not go. But this lesson has come surprisingly hard to many philosophers and scientists...
is naive and it is hubristic."
The resulting religion is never given a formal name in the novel, but it is referred to several times as the "religion of science", hence the name "
His 1977 work "A Guide for the Perplexed" is both a critique of materialistic
and an exploration of the nature and organisation of knowledge.
on account of its anthropocentrism: "For them, raindrops know nothing and lizards know very little, and some humans are more knowledgeable than others."
Sceptical and anti-realist philosophers criticise the possibility of an Archimedean point, claiming it is a form of
, for example;
Accordingly, philosopher Tom Sorell provides this definition of
is a matter of putting too high a value on natural science in comparison with other branches of learning or culture." It has been defined as "the view that the characteristic inductive methods of the natural sciences are the only source of genuine factual knowledge and, in particular, that they alone can yield true knowledge about man and society". The term "
" frequently implies a critique of the more extreme expressions of logical positivism and has been used by social scientists such as Friedrich Hayek, philosophers of science such as Karl Popper, and philosophers such as Hilary Putnam and Tzvetan Todorov to describe (for example) the dogmatic endorsement of scientific methodology and the reduction of all knowledge to only that which is measurable. Philosophers such as Alexander Rosenberg have also appropriated "
" as a name for the view that science is the only reliable source of knowledge.
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