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(16 May 1913 – 22 March 1993) was an Italian cardinal, a candidate for pope and the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State in 1984 and the prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Bishops in 1978.
Pope Pius XII appointed Valdés as the first Bishop of Osorno on 20 June 1956, and Archbishop (later cardinal)
conferred upon him episcopal consecration on 16 September of that same year.
The present church was started with the laying of cornerstone on September 8, 1975. The Church was finished and consecrated as a Marian Shrine on December 8, 1978 by Cardinal
coinciding with the quadricentennial of the Christianization of Agoo.
On 21 December 1973 he was appointed as the Archbishop of Bari by Pope Paul VI. He received his episcopal consecration on 2 February 1974 in Rome from Cardinal
, with Bishops Michele Mincuzzi and Enrico Romolo Compagnone, OCD, serving as the co-consecrators.
On 17 May 1967, Civardi was appointed Secretary of the Sacred Congregation for Bishops by Pope Paul VI, and later Titular Archbishop of "Serdica" on 26 June of that same year. He received his episcopal consecration on the following July 16 from Pope Paul himself, with Bishops Augusto Gianfranceschi and Jacques-Paul Martin serving as co-consecrators, in St. Peter's Basilica. As Secretary, Civardi served as the second-highest official of that dicastery, successively under Cardinals Carlo Confalonieri and
. In January 1968, Civardi visited Cardinal Giacomo Lercaro, and informed him of the Pope Paul's decision to accept his resignation as Archbishop of Bologna.
On 11 July 1976, Lefebvre signed a certificate of receipt of a letter from Cardinal [[
]], Prefect of the [[Congregation for Bishops]], intimating to him a canonical warning that further penalties would be inflicted on him in accordance with canon 2331 §1 of the then Code of Canon Law concerning obstinate disobedience to legitimate precepts or prohibitions of the Roman Pontiff, unless within ten days of receipt of the letter he took steps "to repair the scandal caused". In a letter of 17 July to Pope Paul VI, Lefebvre declared that he judged his action of 29 June to be legitimate. The Pope considered this response inadequate and on his instructions the Congregation for Bishops, on 22 July 1976, suspended Lefebvre for an indefinite time from all exercise of holy orders.
Critics of Opus Dei have often argued that the importance and originality of Escrivá's intellectual contributions to theology, history, and law, at least as measured by his published writings, has been grossly exaggerated by his devotees. However, various officials of the Catholic church have spoken well of Escrivá's influence and of the relevance of his teachings. In the decree introducing the cause of beatification and canonization of Escrivá, Cardinal Ugo Poletti wrote during 1981: "For having proclaimed the universal call to holiness since he founded Opus Dei during 1928, Msgr. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, has been unanimously recognized as the precursor of precisely what constitutes the fundamental nucleus of the Church's magisterium, a message of such fruitfulness in the life of the Church."
, Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, wrote a month after Escrivá's death: "It is evident even today that the life, works, and message of the founder of Opus Dei constitutes a turning point, or more exactly a new original chapter in the history of Christian spirituality." A Vatican "peritus" or consultor for the process of beatification said that "he is like a figure from the deepest spiritual sources". Franz König, Archbishop of Vienna, wrote in 1975:
The biblical concept that everyone is called to sanctity was already enunciated by Augustine of Hippo, Francis of Sales, and Alphonsus Liguori, but their emphasis was on prayer and liturgical devotions, basically monastic spirituality applied to lay people. "Escrivá is more radical," writes Cardinal Luciani (1977), who later became John Paul I. "For him, it is the material work itself which must be turned into prayer and sanctity," thus providing a lay spirituality for lay people to attain holiness. Thus,
, Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, states that Escrivá is a "turning point in the history of Christian spirituality. "The "absolute novelty" of Opus Dei, says Cardinal Franz König (1975), the perceived leader of the "progressivists" in Vatican II, lies in teaching that the two separated worlds of religious life and professional life "should in fact walk together." On a deeper level, the "great originality" of Opus Dei's message, states José Saraiva Martins (2002), is based on the teaching that all of creation has been sanctified by the God-become-flesh: movies, boardrooms, gardens, sports can and should lead to God. In this Christian materialism, as Escrivá calls it, Christians leading an integral life of prayer and mortification are called to "passionately love the world" and to overcome the "enemies of sanctity": greed, lust and egoism.
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