Synonyms for sharawadgi or Related words with sharawadgi
Examples of "sharawadgi"
Temple misinterpreted wild irregularity, which he characterized as "
", to be happy circumstance instead of carefully manipulated garden design. His idea of highlighting natural imperfections and spatial inconsistencies was the inspiration for fashioning early 18th-century ""
" gardens" in England. The most famous example was William Kent’s “Elysian field” at Stowe House built around 1738.
Joseph Addison took up this discourse (1712), without direct reference to "
", at which time the original meaning got lost. In England the term reappears with Alexander Pope (1724) and Horace Walpole (1750), to be picked up again by Nikolaus Pevsner, who brought "
" to the field of town planning.
European understanding of Chinese and East Asian garden design is exemplified by the use of the word "
", meaning beauty, without order that takes the form of an aesthetically pleasing irregularity in landscape design. The origins of the word remain obscure. Originally, it was thought to be derived from a Japanese word for asymmetry. Sir William Temple (1628-1699) introduces the term
in his essay "Upon the Gardens of Epicurus" written in 1685 and published in 1690. Under Temple’s influence European gardeners and landscape designers used the concept of
to create gardens that were believed to reflect the asymmetry and naturalism present in the gardens of the East.
or sharawaggi is a style of landscape gardening or architecture in which rigid lines and symmetry are avoided to give the scene an organic, naturalistic appearance. This concept was influential in English landscape gardening in the 18th century, starting with Sir William Temple's essay "Upon the gardens of Epicurus", and reports from China of the Jesuit missionary, Father Attiret. Sir William Temple first used the word
in discussing the Chinese idea of beauty without order in garden design, in contrast to the straight lines, regularity, and symmetries then popular in European gardens. The style indicates a certain irregularity in the design.
Multiple authors have attempted to trace the etymology of "
" to various Chinese and Japanese terms for garden design. Two Chinese authors suggested the Chinese expressions "saluo guaizhi" "quality of being impressive or surprising through careless or unorderly grace" (Chang 1930) and "sanlan waizhi" "space tastefully enlivened by disorder" (Ch'ien 1940). E. V. Gatenby (1931) proposed English "
" derived from Japanese "sorowaji" (揃わじ) "not being regular", an older form of "sorowazu" (揃わず) "incomplete; unequal (in size); uneven; irregular". S. Lang and Nikolaus Pevsner (1949) dismissed these two unattested Chinese terms, doubted the Japanese "sorowaji", and suggested that Temple coined the word "
" himself. These authors placed Temple's discovery in the context of upcoming ideas on the picturesque. P. Quennell (1968) concurred that the term could not be traced to any Chinese word, and favored the Japanese etymology. Takau Shimada (1997) believed the irregular beauty that Temple admired was more likely characteristic of Japanese gardens, owing to the irregular topography upon which they were built, and compared the Japanese word "sawarinai" (触りない) "do not touch; leave things alone". Ciaran Murray (1998, 1999) reasons that Temple heard the word "
" from Dutch travelers who had visited Japanese gardens, following the Oxford English Dictionary that enters "
" without direct definition, excepting a gloss under the Temple quotation. It notes the etymology is "Of unknown origin; Chinese scholars agree that it cannot belong to that language. Temple speaks as if he had himself heard it from travellers". Ciaran Murray emphasizes that Temple used "the Chineses" in blanket reference inclusive of all Oriental races during a time when the East-West dialogues and influences were quite fluid. He also wanted to see similarity between "
" and a supposed southern Japanese Kyūshū dialect pronunciation "shorowaji". Wybe Kuitert, a notable scholar of Japanese garden history placed "
" conclusively in the discourse that was on in the circles around Constantijn Huygens a good friend of William Temple, tracing the term as the Japanese aesthetic "share'aji" (洒落味、しゃれ味) that belonged to applied arts - including garden design.
was defined in the 1980s as an "artful irregularity in garden design and, more recently, in town planning". The word inspired the coinage of the term "Sharawadji Effect" by composer Claude Schryer, which is used in relation to music and the listening experience.
Alexander Pope in a letter of 1724, refers to Temple's Far East: "For as to the hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Paradise of Cyrus, and the Sharawaggi's of China, I have little or no Idea's of 'em"; a few years later Horace Walpople mentions that "I am almost as fond of the Sharawaggi, or Chinese want of symmetry, in buildings, as in grounds or gardens" (1750). Imaginations of Far Eastern irregularity and
returns frequently in the eigthteenth and nineteenth century discourse.
He took the exotic, non-symmetric landscapes depicted on such imported artwork as supporting his personal preference for irregular landscape scenery. He had seen such irregularity in Dutch gardens where a discourse was on about naturalness in landscapes, planned or not. As a result of his introducing the term "
", Temple is considered to have been among those who introduced the basic ideas that led to the development of the English landscape garden movement.
Merchants from the Dutch East India Company may have brought the term to Europe at the end of the seventeenth century together with Edo period Japanese lacquer ware such as cabinets and screens that they imported from Japan. "
" as a term in written discourse was introduced in England by Sir William Temple in his essay "Upon the Gardens of Epicurus". Temple was an English ambassador residing in The Hague and associating with the King and Queen.
Temple's development of fashionable "
" garden design was followed by Edmund Burke’s 1757 "A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful". Burke suggested a third category including those things which neither inspire awe with the sublime or pleasure with the beautiful. He called it "the picturesque" and qualified it to mean all that cannot fit into the two more rational states evoked by the other categories. A flurry of English authors beginning with William Gilpin and followed by Richard Payne Knight, Uvedale Price, and Humphrey Repton all called for promotion of the picturesque.
The term sharawaggi (more frequently spelled
) typically referred to the principle of planned naturalness of appearance in garden design. It was first used by Sir William Temple (1628–1699) in an essay, written in 1685 but published in 1692, "Upon the Gardens of Epicurus". Temple may have picked up the term from a Dutchman who once lived in the East Indies. Horace Walpole associates the term with irregularity, asymmetry, and freedom from the rigid conventions of classical design; by the time of it was used by Walpole it had become a common term in the lexicon of eighteenth-century aesthetic theory.
Temple saw his retirement from political life to his country estate at Moor Park as following the example of the Greek philosopher Epicurus. In his essay of 1685 "Upon the Gardens of Epicurus" Temple wrote of "the sweetness and satisfaction of this retreat, where since my resolution taken of never entering again into any public employments, I have passed five years without once going to town". As a result of his introducing of the term "
" in this essay, Temple is considered the originator of the English landscape garden movement.
The picturesque style in landscape gardening was a conscious manipulation of Nature to create foregrounds, middlegrounds, and backgrounds in a move to highlight a selection of provocative formal elements - in short the later appropriation of Humphrey Repton. It is unique that an idea on applied design ("
") was diffused, which resulted in a typology of gardens that served as a precursor for the picturesque style. These aesthetic preferences were driven by nationalistic statements of incorporating goods and scenery from one’s own country, framing mechanisms which dictate the overall experience, and a simultaneous embracing of irregular qualities while manipulating the “natural” scenery to promote them. The importance of this comparison lies in its location at the beginning of modernism and modernization, marking a period in which Nature was allowed to become less mathematically ordered but where intervention was still paramount but could be masked compositionally and just shortly after technologically as in Adolphe Alphand’s Parc des Buttes Chaumont and Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park.
The Sharawadji Effect, not to be confused with
, is a musical phenomena described by Claude Shryer as "a sensation of plenitude sometimes created by the contemplation of a complex soundscape whose beauty is inexplicable." It is important to note that Sharawadji is not a stimulus, but rather a reaction to a stimulus. Shryer also elaborated on searching for this "state of awareness" by the means of "one tend[ing] an open ear in the hopes of experiencing the sublime beauty of a given sound in an unexpected context.” The experience of the Sharawadji sonic effect is often heavily dictated by personal context as well as the perception of the listener. One striking example of this effect is the appreciation of the sound of rumbling thunder: those who are being directly exposed to the element would be more likely to fear it compared to those who experience the sound while in a safe environment. Simply understood, “sharawadji sounds belong to everyday life, to a known musical style. They become sharawadji only through decontextualization, through a rupture of meaning.”
The Far East inspired the origins of the English Garden via Holland. In 1685, the English diplomat in The Hague and writer Sir William Temple wrote an essay Upon the garden of Epicurus (published in 1690), which contrasted European theories of symmetrical gardens with asymmetrical compositions from China, for which he introduced the Japanese term "
". Temple had never visited the Far East, but he was in contact with the Dutch and their discourse on irregularity in design, had spoken to a merchant who had been in the Far East for a long time, and read the works of European travellers there. He noted that Chinese gardens avoided formal rows of trees and flower beds, and instead placed trees, plants, and other garden features in irregular ways to strike the eye and create beautiful compositions, with an understatement criticizing the formal compositions of the gardens at the Palace of Versailles of Louis XIV of France. His observations on the Chinese garden were cited by the essayist Joseph Addison in an essay in 1712, who used them to attack the English gardeners who, instead of imitating nature, tried to make their gardens in the French style, as far from nature as possible.
However, the original word for
has been a matter of debate. Some had attempted to reconstruct a possible Chinese origin of the word, for example, ""sa luo gui qi"" (洒落瑰琦) meaning "quality of being impressive or surprising through careless or unorderly grace", another proposed "san luan" (散亂) or "shu luo" (疏落), both meaning "scattered and disorderly", in combination with "wei zhi" (位置, position and arrangement) to mean "space tastefully enlivened by disorder". After reviewing the suggestions, however, Susi Lang and Nikolaus Pevsner concluded that the word cannot be firmly established to be a Chinese term. Michael Sullivan suggested that it is a corruption of a Persian word, while a number of other scholars proposed a Japanese origin. Some thought that it originated from the Japanese term "sorowaji" (揃わじ), which means "asymmetry", "irregular". Another hypothesis is that it stems from the Japanese term "shara'aji" or "share'aji" (洒落味、しゃれ味), used to describe decorative motifs in works of applied art. Although there is no attested usage of "shara'aji" in the Edo period when the term was first borrowed into English, both its components "shara" and "aji" were common concepts in the era, and the concepts would have been used in tandem by craftsmen of the period. "Shara" has a number of possible meanings, including " open minded, but fully controlled, poetry composition", "witty in conversation" and its meaning may be extended to personal and showy adornments; while "aji" means "taste". The term "shara'aji" had been used a few times in literary criticism; and is still in common use for items such as kimonos.
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