Synonyms for shchuko or Related words with shchuko
Examples of "shchuko"
The Moscow Metro station Elektrozavodskaya, initially designed by
and Gelgreikh in 1938 (the drafts were made public in April 1938), was completed five years after Shchuko's death. Stalin Prize for Elektrozavodskaya was awarded to Gelfreikh and Igor Rozhin, omitting
; modern references on the Moscow Metro reinstate
as one of three co-authors.
, author of the 1954 Central Pavilion of the All-Russia Exhibition Centre and a junior architect of the 1931-1932 Bolshoy Dom, was Vladimir Shchuko's first cousin once removed. Yury
, along with three other contributors, collaborated with Vladimir
on the 1936 draft of the Soviet pavilion for the 1937 World Expo in Paris. This contest was won by Iofan.
was married twice. According to Tatyana
(born 1934), her father remained a religious person, despite all political assignments, until his death and did not hide his faith from the public.
() (October 17, 1878 – January 19, 1939) was a Russian architect, member of the Saint Petersburg school of Russian neoclassical revival notable for his giant order apartment buildings "rejecting all trace of the moderne". After the Russian Revolution of 1917
gradually embraced modernist ideas, developing his own version of modernized neoclassicism together with his partner Vladimir Gelfreikh.
and Gelfreikh succeeded through the prewar period of Stalinist architecture with high-profile projects like the Lenin Library, Moscow Metro stations and co-authored the unrealized Palace of Soviets.
was also a prolific stage designer, author of 43 drama and opera stage sets.
In February 1919
, Dobuzhinsky and Benois moved to the newly opened Bolshoy Drama Theatre.
landed a full-time job as the chief designer, "amazingly appearing at the right time in the right place to create the atmosphere of a 'grand style' theatre". The company, leaning towards classical works, earned cash through "lightweight" melodramas like Alexey Tolstoy's 1925 "Conspiring Empress", also designed by
, that became a long-running hit.
productions of the Civil War period (1919 "Don Carlos", 1920 "Othello" and Arvid Järnefelt's "Destruction of Jerusalem") preceded the monumental stereotypes of social realism of 1930s-1940s, however, starting with the 1921 "Twelfth Night" he reduced the apparent size and grandeur of his stage sets.
frequently employed theatre designer Orest Allegri, famous for his inventive handling of perspective illusion. Contemporary critics rate the 1919 "Don Carlos" as the artist's highest mark in theatre.
Yury Shchuko's son, Vladislav
(1942–2007), was a structural engineer and a professor at Vladimir State University.
also designed a series of "Der Ring des Nibelungen" opera shows and a ballet at Mariinsky Theatre. After relocation to Moscow in the end of the 1920s,
collaborated with Bolshoi Theatre and Maly Theatre, producing the 1937 "Boris Godunov".
and Gelfreikh launched construction of a large (2,500 and 850 seats) opera theatre in Rostov-on-Don. The open contest to design the Rostov theatre was won by the Barkhin family partnership, but after the results were announced,
personally arrived in Rostov and persuaded the commissioners to discard the Barkhin drafts. The constructivist theater was completed in 1935, when
was working on the Palace of Soviets. An elaborate set of rotating stages provided unprecedented freedom to producers and designers, even allowing live cavalry marches on stage. Despite its award-winning exterior and plans, the theatre was never used for its intended purpose: poor acoustics rendered it useless for music, and it has not produced a single opera show. It was destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in 1963; this time, the main hall was reduced to 1,200 seats but acquired proper acoustics.
Peretyatkovich, as the youngest member of Neoclassical Revival movement after 1915, had a solid influence on Saint Petersburg architects of his period, securing the leading role of this style together with Vladimir
and Ivan Fomin.
began construction of the neoclassical Municipal Building in Kiev; it was partially completed during World War I and rebuilt to Shchuko's revised draft in the 1920s. The building later housed the Communist Party headquarters in Ukraine, the Gestapo, and currently the Security Service of Ukraine. Apart from the Kiev project,
had completed a single architectural job during the war, rebuilding the Memorial Hall at the Academy of Arts (1914–1915); another Saint Petersburg project, a bank building on Nevsky Prospect, was left unfinished.
Schuko and Gelfreikh participated in the early, public stages of the contest for the Palace of Soviets (1931–1932); their best-known draft was an oversized near copy of the Doge's Palace in Venice. The last, closed, stage of the contest was won by Boris Iofan. On May 10, 1933, Iofan was announced as the winner and officially instructed to redesign his proposal so as to crown it with a gigantic, "50 to 75 meter" statue of Lenin. Four weeks later (June 4), Iofan was "supplied" with two "assistants" -
and Gelfreikh, both his seniors, and having a longer track of successful construction management practice dating from the 1900s. According to mainstream history accounts,
and Gelfreikh were appointed because the immense project had to be completed quickly, and the establishment feared that Iofan was not experienced enough to handle it alone. Modern historians like Dmitry Khmelnitsky assert that the concept was Stalin's own vision imposed through
and Gelfreikh and perfected through their expertise. All authors agree on the fact that the trio initially disagreed over the placement of Lenin's statue:
insisted on literally placing the statue on top of the main hall, as instructed by the decree, while Iofan proposed more complex solutions. Shchuko's concept prevailed. Later, former associates of Iofan and
commented about intense frictions and disarray in the early stages of their joint work; Schuko and Gelfreikh indeed imposed their vision over Iofan's, using contacts with Maxim Gorky to get a direct line to Stalin. In 1934 the trio departed for the United States to study American skyscraper technology, meeting Frank Lloyd Wright, who was well aware of Iofan's work and disliked it.
Isaac Brodsky, Ivan Fomin, Alexey Shchusev, Vladimir
and other influential artists pleaded in favor of Lanceray, and he was released in August 1935. Freedom spelled bitter dissatisfaction to Lanceray: while he was behind bars, the Academy of Architecture commissioned biographies of Cameron and Zakharov to other writers. He still managed to sign a contract for a biography of Vincenzo Brenna.
in 1932 the Architectural and planning committee (Arch-plan) has been created under Presidium of the Executive Committee of the City and Moscow Council. 39 persons, including A.V. Lunatcharsky, V.N. Semenov, A.M. Zaslavsky, N.A. Ladovsky, K.S. Alabyan, B.M. Iofan, A.V. Shchusev, V.A.
, were its members.
Construction of the first stage, designed by Vladimir
and Vladimir Gelfreikh in 1927–1929, was authorized in 1929 and commenced in 1930. The first stage was largely complete in 1941. In the process, the building acquired the "modernized neoclassicism" exterior features of the Palace of Soviets (co-designed by
and Gelfreikh), departing from the stern modernism of the 1927 drafts. The last component of Shchuko's plan, a 250-seat reading hall, was opened in 1945; further additions continued until 1960. In 1968 the building reached its capacity, and the library launched construction of a new depository in Khimki, earmarked for storing newspapers, scientific works and low-demand books from the main storage areas. The first stage of Khimki library was complete in 1975.
Revival school was most active in Saint Petersburg, less in Moscow and other cities. The style was a common choice for luxury country estates, upper-class apartment and office buildings; at the same time it was practically non-existent in church and government architecture. Neoclassical architects born in the 1870s, who reached their peak activity in 1905-1914 (Ivan Fomin, Vladimir
, Ivan Zholtovsky), later became leading figures in stalinist architecture of the 1930s and shaped Soviet architectural education system.
Vladimir Gelfreikh, Shchuko's junior partner in the Soviet period, graduated from the same Academy class of Leon Benois in 1914. Their first extant practical work, the reconstruction of the square in front of the Smolny Institute, was executed in 1923–1924. In 1925
designed the pedestal and architectural setting for Sergey Evseyev's iconic "Lenin on Top of an Armored Car" monument on the Finland Station square. The monument was clearly designed "to provide a counterpoint to the statue of Peter the Great, the Bronze Horseman". The Evseyev-
monument was the first one to establish a "canonical" image of Lenin and was widely repeated,; it turned out to be the architect's last notable work in Saint Petersburg.
In 1917, the building was chosen by Vladimir Lenin as Bolshevik headquarters during the October Revolution. It was Lenin's residence for several months, until the national government was moved to the Moscow Kremlin in March 1918. After that, the Smolny became the headquarters of the local Communist Party apparat, effectively the city hall. In 1927, a monument to Lenin was erected in front of the building, designed by the sculptor Vasily Kozlov and the architects Vladimir
and Vladimir Gelfreikh.
The international contest was followed by not one, but two more rounds of closed competition. The third contest (March–July 1932) round invited 15 design teams, the fourth (July 1932–February 1933) invited only five. On May 10, 1933, Boris Iofan's draft was declared the winner. A duo of neoclassicist architects, Vladimir
and Vladimir Gelfreikh, were assigned to Iofan's team, and the design became known as the "Iofan-Schuko-Gelfreikh" draft.
The interaction of the state with the architects would prove to be one of the features of this time. The same building could be declared a formalist blasphemy and then receive the greatest praise the next year, as happened to Ivan Zholtovsky and his Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya in 1949–1950. Authentic styles like Zholtovsky's Renaissance Revival, Ivan Fomin's St. Petersburg Neoclassical Revival and Art Deco adaptation by Alexey Dushkin and Vladimir
coexisted with imitations and eclectics that became characteristic of that era.
Before 1917, the Russian architectural scene was divided between "Russky Modern" (a local interpretation of Art Nouveau, stronger in Moscow), and Neoclassical Revival (stronger in Saint Petersburg). The Neoclassical school produced mature architects like Alexey Shchusev, Ivan Zholtovsky, Ivan Fomin, Vladimir
and Alexander Tamanian; by the time of the Revolution they were established professionals, with their own companies, schools and followers. These people would eventually become Stalinism's architectural elders and produce the best examples of the period.
Copyright © 2017