Synonyms for sphenodonts or Related words with sphenodonts

aktiogavialis              grangeri              nimravides              protorosaur              ambulocetidae              champsosaurus              procynosuchus              hylonomus              helladotherium              vagaceratops              dysalotosaurus              dakotaraptor              teleoceras              pristichampsus              cymbospondylus              dysganus              hyaenodontidae              alvarezsaurus              pachyrhachis              gemmingi              gryposuchus              belemnoidea              nothosaurus              galmani              hoplosuchus              graciliceratops              mekosuchus              hyaenodon              protocetidae              anapsid              osmolskae              rhynchosaur              bahariasaurus              didelphodon              emydopoidea              latimeriidae              thylacosmilidae              shamosuchus              megagracilis              purgatorius              quaesitosaurus              myllokunmingia              megistotherium              ercaicunensis              dracopelta              goodeidae              protorosaurus              ichthyosauria              metailurus              herrerasauria             



Examples of "sphenodonts"
Gephyrosauridae was a family of sphenodonts that lived in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The members of Gephyrosauridae were named lepidosaurs in 1985 by Michael Benton.
"Planocephalosaurus" was one of the first sphenodonts and bore a strong resemblance to the extant tuatara, albeit much smaller, at only in length. The creature is presumed to have fed on large invertebrates and small vertebrates.
Lizards typically have four legs feet and external ears, though some are legless, while snakes lack both of these characteristics. Lizards and snakes share a movable quadrate bone, distinguishing them from the sphenodonts, which have more primitive and solid diapsid skulls.
The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, ferns, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Animal fossils discovered include bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, amphibians, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial (like "Hoplosuchus") and aquatic crocodylomorphans, cotylosaurs, several species of pterosaurs like "Harpactognathus", and early mammals, multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts.
Sphenodonts, and their sister group Squamata (which includes lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians), belong to the superorder Lepidosauria, the only surviving taxon within Lepidosauromorpha. Squamates and sphenodonts both show caudal autotomy (loss of the tail-tip when threatened), and have transverse cloacal slits. The origin of the sphenodonts probably lies close to the split between the Lepidosauromorpha and the Archosauromorpha. Though they resemble lizards, the similarity is superficial, because the group has several characteristics unique among reptiles. The typical lizard shape is very common for the early amniotes; the oldest known fossil of a reptile, the "Hylonomus", resembles a modern lizard. R.L. Ditmars, Litt.D, says; "The Tuatara resembles in form stout-bodies modern lizards, which we might call iguanas; this resemblance is further intensified by a row of spines upon the back. It is dark olive, the sides sprinkled with pale dots. The eye has a cat-like pupil. Large specimens are two and a half feet long. While superficial resemblance might tend to group this reptile with lizards, its skeleton and anatomy show it to belong to a different part of a technical classification."
The Upper Elliot Formation is thought to have been an ancient floodplain. Fossils of the prosauropod dinosaur "Massospondylus" and "Plateosaurus" have been recovered from the Upper Elliot Formation, which boasts the world's most diverse fauna of early Jurassic ornithischian dinosaurs, including "Abrictosaurus", "Fabrosaurus", "Heterodontosaurus", and "Lesothosaurus", among others. The Forest Sandstone Formation was the paleoenvironment of protosuchid crocodiles, sphenodonts, the dinosaur "Massospondylus" and indeterminate remains of a prosauropod. "Dracovenator" is thought to have preyed on the prosauropod dinosaurs in its paleoenvironment.
During the Late Jurassic, the first avialans, like "Archaeopteryx", evolved from small coelurosaurian dinosaurs. In the air, pterosaurs were common; they ruled the skies, filling many ecological roles now taken by birds, and may have already produced some of the largest flying animals of all time. Within the undergrowth were various types of early mammals, as well as tritylodonts, lizard-like sphenodonts, and early lissamphibians. The rest of the Lissamphibia evolved in this period, introducing the first salamanders and caecilians.
On land, a number of new types of dinosaurs—the heterodontosaurids, scelidosaurs, stegosaurs, and tetanurans—appeared, and joined those groups like the coelophysoids, prosauropods and the sauropods that had continued over from the Triassic. Accompanying them as small carnivores were the sphenosuchian and protosuchid crocodilians. In the air, new types of pterosaurs replaced those that had died out at the end of the Triassic. But in the undergrowth were various types of early mammals, as well as tritylodont mammal-like reptiles, lizard-like sphenodonts, and early Lissamphibians.
The Upper Elliot Formation is thought to have been an ancient floodplain. Fossils of the prosauropod dinosaur "Massospondylus" and "Ignavusaurus" have been recovered from the Upper Elliot Formation, which boasts the world's most diverse fauna of early Jurassic ornithischian dinosaurs, including "Abrictosaurus", "Fabrosaurus", "Heterodontosaurus", and "Lesothosaurus", among others. The Forest Sandstone Formation was the paleoenvironment of protosuchid crocodiles, sphenodonts, the dinosaur "Massospondylus" and indeterminate remains of a prosauropod. Paul (1988) noted that "Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis" lived among desert dunes and oases and hunted juvenile and adult prosauropods.
Other organisms in this region included bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans, and several species of pterosaur like "Harpactognathus" and "Mesadactylus". Early mammals present were docodonts (such as "Docodon"), multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts. The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of tree ferns, and ferns (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the "Araucaria"-like conifer "Brachyphyllum".
Our knowledge of how "Dimorphodon" lived is limited. It perhaps mainly inhabited coastal regions and might have had a very varied diet. Buckland suggested it ate insects. Later, it became common to depict it as a piscivore (fish eater), though Buckland's original idea is more well supported by biomechanical studies, and inconsistent with the animal's habits (see flight below). "Dimorphodon" had an advanced jaw musculature specialized for a "snap and hold" method of feeding. The jaw could close extremely quickly, but with relatively little force or tooth penetration. This, along with the short and high skull and longer, pointed front teeth suggest that "Dimorphodon" was an insectivore, though it may have occasionally eaten small vertebrates and carrion as well. Mark Witton has argued that the animal was a specialised carnivore, being too large for an insectivorous diet and therefore specialised to hunt small lizards, sphenodonts and mammals, though its relatively weak jaw musculature probably meant that it ate proportionally small prey.
Euscolosuchus is an extinct genus of suchian closely related to crocodylomorphs. Fossils have been found from the Tomahawk Creek Member of the Turkey Branch Formation (part of the Newark Supergroup) outcropping in east-central Virginia. The locality from which the material was found dates back to the early Carnian stage of the Late Triassic, based on palynological studies. These strata are known for the abundance of fossil material belonging to tetrapod vertebrates in relation to other sites of the Newark Supergroup in the Richmond Basin that generally lack such material. The site is unique among others in the supergroup and closely resembles localities in the southern hemisphere, as is suggested by the presence of numerous fossils of traversodont cynodonts found from the area. Other tetrapods present include procolophonians, chiniquodontids, and sphenodonts.
The fossil record of herbivorous lepidosaurs extends into the Late Triassic period, nearly 227 million years ago. A recently described sphenodontian reptile is one of the oldest known herbivorous lepidosaurs. This animal possesses a number of features that demonstrate an herbivorous lifestyle, such as a specialized jaw movement (propalinal) and closely packed teeth that appear to be useful in the shearing of plant material. Phylogenetic analysis shows that herbivory likely evolved in the sphenodontian clade once, specifically within in a group called the Opisthodontia. This group of herbivorous sphenodonts possessed wide, shredding teeth and became extinct during the Late Cretaceous (approximately 65 million years ago). These ancient herbivorous animals clearly demonstrate that the ability to consume plant material evolved very early in the history of lepidosaurs.
The Morrison Formation is interpreted as a semiarid environment with distinct wet and dry seasons, and flat floodplains. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of conifers, tree ferns, and ferns (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the Araucaria-like conifer "Brachyphyllum". The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, ferns, cycads, ginkoes, and several families of conifers. Animal fossils discovered include bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles like "Dorsetochelys", sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans like "Hoplosuchus", several species of pterosaurs such as "Harpactognathus" and "Mesadactylus", numerous dinosaur species, and early mammals such as docodonts (like "Docodon"), multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts.
The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as "Camarasaurus", "Barosaurus", "Diplodocus", "Apatosaurus" and "Brachiosaurus". Dinosaurs that lived alongside "Stokesosaurus" included the herbivorous ornithischians "Camptosaurus", "Dryosaurus", "Stegosaurus" and "Othnielosaurus". Predators in this paleoenvironment included the theropods "Saurophaganax", "Torvosaurus", "Ceratosaurus", "Marshosaurus", "Ornitholestes" and "Allosaurus", which accounting for 70 to 75% of theropod specimens and was at the top trophic level of the Morrison food web. Other animals that shared this paleoenvironment included bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans, and several species of pterosaur. Examples of early mammals present in this region, were docodonts, multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts. The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of tree ferns, and fern (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the "Araucaria"-like conifer "Brachyphyllum".
"Othnielosaurus" was one of the smaller members of the diverse Morrison Formation dinosaur fauna, diminutive in comparison to the giant sauropods. The Morrison Formation is interpreted as a semiarid environment with distinct wet and dry seasons, and flat floodplains. Vegetation varied from river-lining gallery forests of conifers, tree ferns, and ferns, to fern savannas with rare trees. It has been a rich fossil hunting ground, holding fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, ferns, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Other fossils discovered include bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans, several species of pterosaur, numerous dinosaur species, and early mammals such as docodonts, multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts. Such dinosaurs as the theropods "Ceratosaurus", "Allosaurus", "Ornitholestes", and "Torvosaurus", the sauropods "Apatosaurus", "Brachiosaurus", "Camarasaurus", and "Diplodocus", and the ornithischians "Camptosaurus", "Dryosaurus", and "Stegosaurus" are known from the Morrison. "Othnielosaurus" is present in stratigraphic zones 2-5.
The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as "Camarasaurus", "Diplodocus", "Apatosaurus" and "Brachiosaurus". Dinosaurs that lived alongside "Barosaurus" included the herbivorous ornithischians "Camptosaurus", "Dryosaurus", "Stegosaurus" and "Othnielosaurus". Predators in this paleoenvironment included the theropods "Saurophaganax", "Torvosaurus", "Ceratosaurus", "Marshosaurus", "Stokesosaurus", "Ornitholestes" and "Allosaurus", which accounting for 70 to 75% of theropod specimens and was at the top trophic level of the Morrison food web. Other vertebrates that shared this paleoenvironment included bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans, and several species of pterosaur. Early mammals were present such as docodonts, multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts. The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of tree ferns, and ferns (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the "Araucaria"-like conifer "Brachyphyllum".
The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as "Camarasaurus", "Barosaurus", "Diplodocus", "Apatosaurus" and "Brachiosaurus". Dinosaurs that lived alongside "Dryosaurus" included the herbivorous ornithischians "Camptosaurus", "Stegosaurus "and "Othnielosaurus". Predators in this paleoenvironment included the theropods "Saurophaganax", "Torvosaurus", "Ceratosaurus", "Marshosaurus", "Stokesosaurus", and "Ornitholestes" and "Allosaurus", which accounting for 70 to 75% of theropod specimens and was at the top trophic level of the Morrison food web. Other vertebrates that shared this paleoenvironment included bivalves, snails, ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans, and several species of pterosaur. Early mammals were present in this region, such as docodonts, multituberculates, symmetrodonts, and triconodonts. The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of tree ferns, and ferns (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the "Araucaria"-like conifer "Brachyphyllum".
The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs. Dinosaurs known from the Morrison include the theropods "Ceratosaurus", "Ornitholestes", and "Torvosaurus", the sauropods "Apatosaurus", "Brachiosaurus", "Camarasaurus", and "Diplodocus", and the ornithischians "Camptosaurus", "Dryosaurus", and "Stegosaurus". "Allosaurus" accounted for 70 to 75% of theropod specimens and was at the top trophic level of the Morrison food web. Other vertebrates that shared this paleoenvironment included ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans, and several species of pterosaurs. Shells of bivalves and aquatic snails are also common. The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of tree ferns, and ferns (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the "Araucaria"-like conifer "Brachyphyllum".
The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs. Dinosaurs known from the Morrison include the theropods "Ceratosaurus", "Koparion", "Stokesosaurus", "Ornitholestes", "Allosaurus" and "Torvosaurus", the sauropods "Apatosaurus", "Brachiosaurus", "Camarasaurus", and "Diplodocus", and the ornithischians "Camptosaurus", "Dryosaurus", "Othnielia", "Gargoyleosaurus" and "Stegosaurus". "Diplodocus" is commonly found at the same sites as "Apatosaurus", "Allosaurus", "Camarasaurus", and "Stegosaurus". "Allosaurus", which accounting for 70 to 75% of theropod specimens and was at the top trophic level of the Morrison food web. Many of the dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation are the same genera as those seen in Portuguese rocks of the Lourinha Formation (mainly "Allosaurus", "Ceratosaurus", "Torvosaurus", and "Stegosaurus"), or have a close counterpart ("Brachiosaurus" and "Lusotitan", "Camptosaurus" and "Draconyx"). Other vertebrates that shared this paleoenvironment included ray-finned fishes, frogs, salamanders, turtles like "Dorsetochelys", sphenodonts, lizards, terrestrial and aquatic crocodylomorphans such as "Hoplosuchus", and several species of pterosaur like "Harpactognathus" and "Mesadactylus". Shells of bivalves and aquatic snails are also common. The flora of the period has been revealed by fossils of green algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and several families of conifers. Vegetation varied from river-lining forests of tree ferns, and ferns (gallery forests), to fern savannas with occasional trees such as the "Araucaria"-like conifer "Brachyphyllum".