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(March 23, 1925 – March 5, 2016) was an Argentine poet, lecturer, art critic and essayist.
Born and raised in Buenos Aires,
was educated at Saint Andrew's Scot School and at the Jesuit El Salvador Secondary School. He graduated with a Law Degree at the University of Edinburgh in 1948.
He lived to see his vision for the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art, which was opened in 1956 by art critic Rafael
; a number of Curatella's works are among its collections.
In 1969 Batuz built his atelier, approaching it like an organic sculpture without previous plans. He completed the entire construction himself. Met Leopoldo Presas, the beginning of a lifelong friendship and a year later Batuz met Rafael
with whom began a great collaboration.
She studied with Juan Batlle Planas and Jaime Davidovich. In 1961, she exhibited for the first time in Lirolay Gallery returning two years later for another exhibit, curated by the French artist, Germaine Derbecq. In 1964, she participated in an exhibition in Buenos Aires Modern Art Museum, curated by Rafael
. She was part of the artistic core led by critic Jorge Romero Brest and including, among others, Antonio Berni, Jorge de la Vega, Juan Carlos Distefano, León Ferrari, Gyula Kosice, Alberto Greco, Delia Cancela, Pablo Mesejean, Julio Le Parc, Marta Minujín, Wells and Luis Federico Peralta Ramos. Artist, cartoonist, costumer and designer, she also excelled in designing furniture and shoes with her husband Carlos "Charlie"
, whom he met in 1962 and with whom she traveled to New York.
As in the case of Baudelaire in the 19th century, the poet-as-critic phenomenon appeared once again in the 20th, when French poet Apollinaire became the champion of Cubism. Later, French writer and hero of the Resistance André Malraux wrote extensively on art, going well beyond the limits of his native Europe. His conviction that the vanguard in Latin America lay in Mexican Muralism (Orozco, Rivera and Siqueiros) changed after his trip to Buenos Aires in 1958. After visiting the studios of several Argentine artists in the company of the young Director of the Museum of Modern Art of Buenos Aires Rafael
, Malraux declared the new vanguard to lie in Argentina's new artistic movements.
, a poet-critic who became Cultural Director of the OAS in Washington, D.C., during the 1960s, was the last to interview Edward Hopper before his death, contributing to a revival of interest in the American artist.
Demaría's study of philosophy led him to the conviction that man's deepest conscience responds to sentiment and feeling rather than to ideas and rationality. His reflections on this aspect of human experience and his own personal quest for clarification resulted in his "Treatise on Sentiment" or "Tratado del Sentimiento", published in 1970 by the Ediciones del Hombre Nuevo, founded among others by his friend Rafael
His many correspondents included some of the most renowned cultural figures of the mid twentieth century: Peter Levi, Henry Miller, Huston Smith, Susan Sontag, Mark Van Doren, Daniel Berrigan, Louise Bogan, Gwendolyn Brooks, Richard Eberhart, Paul Goodman, , Galway Kinnell, Denise Levertov, Archibald MacLeish, Marianne Moore, Anaïs Nin, Richard Wilbur, Robert Bly, Rafael
, Laura Riding Jackson, Lincoln Kirstein, Kathleen Raine, Robert Penn Warren, Dorothy Day and Thomas Merton.
Calling the attention of local arts patron Ignacio Pirovano and Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art Director Rafael
following a 1959 show at the renowned Peuser Art Gallery, Mac Entyre's work soon earned him a following among several of the city's other accomplished abstract artists, resulting in a genre they themselves described as Generative art, a movement later expanded on by world-renowned computer artists like Benoît Mandelbrot.
In 1972 Batuz published his first portfolio of serigraphs with text by Rafael
. The flat-even surface of silkscreen printing was a revelation to Batuz. Simplification of his work followed. John Davis Lodge, at this time the American Ambassador to Argentina, became interested in Batuz’ work. It was the beginning of a valued friendship. With the sponsorship of the Argentine Government initiated by the Ministry of Culture, Batuz left for an exhibition tour to the United States.
The museum opened on April 11, 1956, and resulted from an initiative by sculptor and diplomat Pablo Curatella Manes and art critic Rafael
(its first director). Located initially in Buenos Aires' Witcomb Gallery, the museum was later housed in the San Martín Cultural Center, and was moved to its current location, a former Nobleza Piccardo tobacconist in the San Telmo neighborhood, in 1986. Its collections include over 6,000 works, including those by Josef Albers, Antonio Berni, Curatella Manes, Raquel Forner, Romulo Macció, Marcelo Pombo, Marta Minujín, Emilio Pettoruti, Xul Solar and Wassily Kandinsky, among many other artists.
The poem, written in a Spanish that evokes rural Argentina, is widely seen as the pinnacle of the genre of "gauchesque" poetry (poems centered on the life of the gaucho, written in a style that evokes the rural Argentine ballads known as "payadas") and a touchstone of Argentine national identity. It has appeared in literally hundreds of editions and has been translated into over 70 languages. It has earned major commentaries from, among others, Leopoldo Lugones, Miguel de Unamuno, Jorge Luis Borges ("see" Borges on Martín Fierro) and Rafael
. The Martín Fierro Award, named for the poem, is the most respected award for Argentine television and radio programs.
The poet was officially invited to Cuba in 1967, where he formed part of the international jury for the annual Casa de las Américas prize for literature. Marechal has since become a fundamental influence in Argentine poetry and fiction, although he continues to be a relatively unknown figure on the international scene. Among his more well known literary disciples and friends are Argentine poets Rafael
and Fernando Demaría, to whom he dedicated his "Heptamerón"'s "Poética" and "Alegropeya", respectively. Marechal's daughters have established a foundation (see External links) for the diffusion of their father's work.
Batuz had one-man shows at the Museu de Arte de São Paulo in Brazil and the Phillips Collection in Washington DC. His book ‘Interrelation of Forms’, with texts by Rafael
, Frank Getlein, Dieter Ronte, and Joseph H. Hirshhorn, also serves as catalogue for these shows. Experiments in the handmade paper workshop of John Koller, where he did a series of works by hydraulic press. Begins to work with pulp in his own studio in a free manner. Completes his large work, ‘Omen’, in September. Travels to Europe, where he is invited to exhibit by several museums.
Villalpando began his musical training in Potosí under Santiago Velásquez and Padre José Díaz Gainza. From 1958 he studied at the Conservatory of Buenos Aires with Alberto Ginastera, Pedro Sáenz, Abraham Jurafsky and Roberto García Morillo and 1963-64 at the Latin American Center for Higher musical studies (CLAEM) in Buenos Aires with Olivier Messiaen, Riccardo Malipiero, Luigi Dallapiccola, Alberto Ginastera, Bruno Maderna and Aaron Copland. Here in cooperation with Miguel Angel Rondano he developed a sound installation for an exhibition of the painter Carlos
Among his staunchest supporters since the Fifties, art critic and poet Rafael
published a book on the painter in 1960 and many articles on his work over the years. In Squirru's work "Claves del arte actual", the artist is thus described: ""Reaching at times the raptures of mysticism, Luis Barragán continues to be, in Shakespeare's words, "caviar to the general". In order to be appreciated, his aesthetic polyphony requires a degree of concentration not everyone is willing to make. As if emanating from an atomic battery, Barragán irradiates the type of energy which the years will cause to yield fruit, to the glory of the ascetic path he continues to follow"..."
San Telmo's bohemian air began attracting local artists after upwardly-mobile immigrants left the area. Increasing cultural activity resulted in the opening of the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art by critic Rafael
in 1956, as well as in the 1960 advent of the "Republic of San Telmo," an artisan guild which organized art walks and other events. San Telmo's immigrant presence also led to quick popularization of tango in the area: long after that genre's heyday, renowned vocalist Edmundo Rivero purchased an abandoned colonial-era grocery in 1969, christening it "El Viejo Almacén" ("The Old Grocery Store"). This soon became one of the city's best-known tango music halls, helping lead to a cultural and economic revival in San Telmo.
In 1950, another milestone arose: the New Humanism, a response to World War II and its aftermath. On one level are avant-gardists like Raúl Gustavo Aguirre, Edgar Bayley and Julio Llinás; on another, existentialists: José Isaacson, Julio Arístides and Miguel Ángel Viola. Further away are those who reconcile both tendencies with a regionalist tendency: Alfredo Veiravé, Jaime Dávalos and Alejandro Nicotra. Other fiction writers left a highly charged testimony of the times: Beatriz Guido, David Viñas, Marco Denevi and Silvina Bullrich. In a majority of the writers, a strong influence of Anglo-Saxon and Italian poetry can be perceived. Of particular interest are the poetic works of two of Marechal's disciples, the poets Rafael
and Fernando Demaría.
He was one of the "Grupo de los 8", a movement of Uruguayan artists formed in 1958 together with Oscar García Reino, Miguel Ángel Pareja, Raúl Pavlovsky, Lincoln Presno, Américo Sposito, Alfredo Testoni and Julio Verdie in order to promote new tendencies in painting. In 1960 they were invited by art critic Rafael
to join the international exhibition at the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art (of which he was creator and first director) with artists such as Willem De Kooning, Roger Hilton and Lucio Fontana. The experimental tendencies of the Grupo de los 8 have since gained a place of unquestionable relevance not only in the panorama of Uruguayan art but also at an international level, some of their works forming part of museums and collections worldwide.
Considering his right wing sympathies earned him the dislike of the progressive left wing "intelligentsia" on the one hand while his conflicts with the Jesuit order spawned the mistrust of weighty sectors of the Catholic world, it is no surprise that Castellani’s work has never reached the position it deserves among Argentine letters. Apart from a restricted group of fervent admirers such as Argentine writers Rafael
and Sebastian Randle (author of a voluminous biography of the priest published by Vortice in 2003) and Cardinal Antonio Quarracino who consider him one of the foremost Argentine intellectuals of the Twentieth Century, it would not be exaggerated to say that Castellani’s writings are still widely ignored in his own country.
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