Synonyms for subfertile or Related words with subfertile
Examples of "subfertile"
Suppression of estradiol production in a subpopulation of
men may improve the semen analysis.
Regarding age and female fertility, fertility starts at onset of menses, typically around age 12-13 Most women become
during the early 30s, and during the early 40s most women become sterile.
If, for the purposes of this discussion, we consider female infertility as the main issue (while also considering male infertility where it relates to this particular subject), the huge majority of
women suffer from either:
In May 2014 it was announced that Al Kazeem had proved to be "
" at stud and was being returned to training to resume his career as a racehorse.
Sonohysterography is a specialized procedure by which fluid, usually sterile saline (then called saline infusion sonography or SIS), is instilled into the uterine cavity, and gynecologic sonography performed at the same time. A review in 2015 came to the conclusion that SIS is highly sensitive in the detection of intrauterine abnormalities in
women, comparable to hysteroscopy. SIS is highly sensitive and specific test in the diagnosis of uterine polyps, submucous uterine fibroids, uterine anomalies and intrauterine adhesions (as part of Asherman's syndrome), and can be used as a screening tool for
women prior to IVF treatment.
A number of factors may influence the accuracy of semen analysis results, and results for a single man may have a large amount of natural variation over time. For this reason, a
result must be confirmed with at least two further analyses.
For those who after weightloss still are anovulatory or for anovulatory lean women, ovulation induction to reverse the anovulation is the principal treatment used to help infertility in PCOS. Clomiphene citrate is the main medication used for this purpose, and is the first-line treatment in
anovulatory patients with PCOS. Gonadotrophins such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are, in addition to surgery, second-line treatments.
The usage of single embryo transfer is highest in Sweden (69.4%), but as low as 2.8% in the USA. Access to public funding for ART, availability of good cryopreservation facilities, effective education about the risks of multiple pregnancy, and legislation appear to be the most important factors for regional usage of single embryo transfer. Also, personal choice plays a significant role as many
couples have a strong preference for twins.
The discovery of SERMs resulted from attempts to develop new contraceptives. A timeline of when SERMs came on the market is seen in figure 1. Clomifene and tamoxifen prevented conception in rats but did the opposite in humans. Clomifene successfully induced ovulation in
women and on February 1, 1967, it was approved in the US for the treatment of ovulatory dysfunction in women who were trying to conceive. Toxicological issues prevented long term use of clomifene and further drug development for other potential applications such as breast cancer treatment and prevention.
If the results from a man's first sample are
, they must be verified with at least two more analyses. At least 2 to 4 weeks must be allowed between each analysis. Results for a single man may have a large amount of natural variation over time, meaning a single sample may not be representative of a man's average semen characteristics. In addition, sperm physiologist Joanna Ellington believes that the stress of producing an ejaculate sample for examination, often in an unfamiliar setting and without any lubrication (most lubricants are somewhat harmful to sperm), may explain why men's first samples often show poor results while later samples show normal results.
The structure of the sperm head is also related to protamine levels. The ratio of protamine 2 to protamine 1 and transition nuclear proteins has been found to change the sperm head shape in various species of Mus, the genus of mice, by altering the expression of protamine 2 via mutations in its promoter region. A decrease in the ratio has been found to increase the competitive ability of sperm in Mus species. However, further testing is required to determine how this ratio influences the shape of the head and whether monogamy influences this selection. In humans, studies show that men who have unbalanced Prm1/Prm2 are
Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty two tests were carried out on mutant mice and eleven significant abnormalities were observed. Fewer than expected homozygous mutant mice were identified at weaning. Mutants appear to be
, had decreased vertical activity in an open field, decreased lean body mass, decreased rib number and decreased mature B cell number. Males also had a decreased body weight, an abnormal posture and atypical indirect calorimetry data. Females also had an abnormally short snout and atypical haematology parameters .
A knockout model for Lfng has been created in mice, and without Lfng, mice have shorter tails, and impaired rib, lung, and somite development. A deficiency of Lfng in male mice has also been associated with lack of spermatozoa in the epididymis of many mice; however, spermatogenesis was not impaired. Rather, the male mice were
. In female mice, Lfng deficiency led to infertility because of abnormal folliculogenesis. Further examination showed that oocytes from these female mice did not complete meiotic maturation. However, there are other studies that contradict this stating that not all female mile deficient of Lfng are infertile. A possible explanation for this difference between these studies is that the Lfng alleles were functional different, however, this is unlikely. More likely is that this discrepancy results from differences in the genetic background of the mice or husbandry and colony conditions.
EIS can be experimentally induced in animals via knockout of the ER. In so-called ERKO mice, different ERs can be disabled allowing to study the role of such receptors. ERKO mice show development of the respective female or male reproductive systems, and male and female α-ERKO mice are infertile, β-ERKO males are fertile while females are
, male and female double α- and β-ERKO mice are sterile. The uterus and mammary glands are hypoplastic and do not respond to exogenous stimulation by estrogens. Males are infertile with atrophy in the testes. Bones age is delayed and bones are more brittle. Variations in these patterns can be achieved by selectively disabling the α or β ERs.
A review from 2010 concluded that overweight and obese
women have a reduced probability of successful fertility treatment and their pregnancies are associated with more complications and higher costs. In hypothetical groups of 1000 women undergoing fertility care, the study counted approximately 800 live births for normal weight and 690 live births for overweight and obese anovulatory women. For ovulatory women, the study counted approximately 700 live births for normal weight, 550 live births for overweight and 530 live births for obese women. The increase in cost per live birth in anovulatory overweight and obese women were, respectively, 54 and 100% higher than their normal weight counterparts, for ovulatory women they were 44 and 70% higher, respectively.
"Demographers tend to define infertility as childlessness in a population of women of reproductive age," whereas "the epidemiological definition refers to "trying for" or "time to" a pregnancy, generally in a population of women exposed to" a probability of conception. Currently, female fertility normally peaks at age 24 and diminishes after 30, with pregnancy occurring rarely after age 50. A female is most fertile within 24 hours of ovulation. Male fertility peaks usually at age 25 and declines after age 40. The time needed to pass (during which the couple tries to conceive) for that couple to be diagnosed with infertility differs between different jurisdictions. Existing definitions of infertility lack uniformity, rendering comparisons in prevalence between countries or over time problematic. Therefore, data estimating the prevalence of infertility cited by various sources differs significantly. A couple that tries unsuccessfully to have a child after a certain period of time (often a short period, but definitions vary) is sometimes said to be
, meaning less fertile than a typical couple. Both infertility and subfertility are defined as the inability to conceive after a certain period of time (the length of which vary), so often the two terms overlap.
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